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   2012| September-December  | Volume 19 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 13, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Favorable impact of Nigella sativa seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients
Huda Kaatabi, Abdullah O Bamosa, Fatma M Lebda, Abdulmohsen H Al Elq, Ali I Al-Sultan
September-December 2012, 19(3):155-161
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102311  PMID:23230380
Background and Aim: The atherogenic pattern of dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly discussed. We have recently reported a hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa (NS) seeds in patients with type 2 DM. In this study we sought to assess the impact of NS seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and Method: A total of 94 patients with type 2 DM were recruited and divided into 3 dose groups. Capsules containing NS were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2, and 3 g/day for 12 weeks. All patients were subjected to measurement of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) before treatment and 4, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter. Results: Patients receiving 1 g/day NS seeds for 12 weeks (group 1) showed nonsignificant changes in all the parameters except for a significant increase in HDL-c after 4 weeks of treatment. However, patients ingested 2 g/day NS displayed a significant decline in TC, TG, and LDL-c, and a significant elevation in HDL-c/LDL-c, compared with their baseline data and to group 1 patients. Increasing NS dose to 3 g/day failed to show any increase in the hypolipdemic effect produced by the 2 g/day dose. Conclusion: NS supplementation at a dose of 2 g/day for 12 weeks may improve the dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, NS is a potential protective natural agent against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications in these patients.
  5,886 10,248 18
The effect of body mass index on the outcome of pregnancy in women with recurrent miscarriage
Winnie Lo, Raj Rai, Aisha Hameed, Susan R Brailsford, Ahlam A Al-Ghamdi, Lesley Regan
September-December 2012, 19(3):167-171
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102316  PMID:23230382
Background: Maternal obesity is associated with menstrual disorders, infertility and sporadic miscarriages. Recurrent miscarriage (RM) affects at least 1% of couples trying to conceive. In over 50% of cases, the cause of the loss of pregnancy remains unexplained. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) and future outcomes of pregnancy in couples with "unexplained" RM. Methods and Results: All couples referred to the specialist recurrent miscarriage clinic at St. Mary's Hospital, London, were investigated for an underlying cause. Those with unexplained RM were eligible. Demographic and clinical data were retrieved from a computerised database and medical records. The World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of BMI was used. Univariate analysis demonstrated that BMI, maternal age, number of previous miscarriages and ethnicity were significantly associated with pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression demonstrated that maternal obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) significantly increased the risk of miscarriage in couples with unexplained RM (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.06 - 2.83). Asian women with a BMI similar to Caucasian women had a higher risk of a further miscarriage (OR 2.87, 95% CI, 1.52 - 5.39). Conclusions: Maternal obesity is an independent factor associated with an increased risk of miscarriage in couples with RM. All women with RM should have their BMI recorded at their first clinic visit. The potential effect of weight loss on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies should be assessed in future studies. The increased risk of miscarriage in Asian women needs to be explored further.
  4,921 1,837 18
Comparative study of physical activity of hypertensives and normotensives: A cross-sectional study of adults in Saudi Arabia
Nasser A Al-Hamdan, Abdulmohsen H Al-Zalabani, Abdalla A Saeed
September-December 2012, 19(3):162-166
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102315  PMID:23230381
Background: To formulate all intervention strategies for hypertension in the community, it is essential to quantify the magnitude of the disease and its risk factors. The patterns of physical activity have not been studied in terms of their being a risk factor or a predictor of hypertension in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study using the STEP-wise approach of adults and a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample. Data were collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographics, blood pressure, patterns, levels and duration of physical activity. Results: Of a total of 4758, 1213 (25.5%) were hypertensives. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with total levels and duration of physical activity in leisure, transport, and work. Significant predictors of hypertension included lower levels of work involving a moderate physical activity for 10 min, walking/cycling for 10 min continuously, and vigorous activity during leisure time. Conclusions: Hypertension is prevalent among adults; physical inactivity is a significant risk factor and predictor. Targeting this modifiable risk factor can help in prevention, early diagnosis, and control.
  4,080 2,568 2
Effect of antiretroviral therapy on clinical and immunologic disease progression in HIV positive children: One-year follow-up study
Ankur Patel, Sangeeta S Trivedi, Rajesh K Chudasama, Priyanka K Patel
September-December 2012, 19(3):178-183
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102318  PMID:23230384
Objective: To study the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on clinical, immunologic, and nutritional progression of disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children for 1 year. Materials and Methods: The study included 54 children aged 1.5-15 years who registered at the ART center, Surat, from August 2007 to August 2009. During the study period, the children were followed-up at 6 monthly intervals up to 1 year after starting ART. World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and CD4 cell count as per national guidelines, and nutritional status were used to measure clinical and immunologic progression of disease up to 1 year. Results: Out of 54 children, mother-to-child transmission was reported in 96.2% children; for 74% of the children, both parents were HIV positive. All the children were classified according to WHO clinical staging into 4 stages and as per CD4 cell count (%), followed up at 6 and 12 months and the benefits with ART reported. At 12 months follow-up, 15% of the study group children had died. Both mean CD4 count and a relative percentage showed significant increase (P < 0.01) in the study group 1 year after ART. Conclusion: The present study reports benefits of ART in terms of clinical and immunologic progression of disease, nutritional status of HIV-infected children after 1 year of ART.
  3,922 2,531 2
Gender differences in health education needs and preferences of Saudis attending Riyadh Military Hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Hesham I Al-Khashan, Naseem A Almulla, Siddig A. A. Galil, Ashraf A Rabbulnabi, Adel M Mishriky
September-December 2012, 19(3):172-177
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102317  PMID:23230383
Background and Aim: Health reforms that tend to increase the participation of clients in decision-making requires them to be health-literate; hence, the importance of health education. However, not much research has been done to investigate the differences in health education needs according to demographic characteristics of the clients. The aim of this study was to find out any possible gender differences there may be in health education needs and preferences. Subjects and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted at Riyadh Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia, on a convenience sample of adult Saudis attending its clinics. Data was collected from April 2009 to May 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire covering demographic data, history and needs of health education, methods, and preferred educator. Results: Of the 1300 forms distributed, 977 were returned completed (75.2% response). Most men (74.0%) and women (77.9%) had had health education, but more women reported that it had been helpful (P = 0.014). More men mentioned health education needs relating to primary prevention (P = 0.027), and unhealthy practices (P = 0.003), and considered the different language a barrier (P = 0.002) even after adjustment for age and education. The one-to-one method was the most preferred health education method for men (72.7%) and women (67.9%). More women preferred group health education (P = 0.02) after adjustment for age and education. Significantly more men preferred pharmacists and dietitians as health educators. Conclusion: The results point to a few significant differences between men and women regarding their health education needs, barriers, and preferences. These must be taken into consideration when planning health education programs.
  4,061 1,064 3
The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study
Byalakere R Chandrashekar, Shankarappa Suma, Kaverikana Kiran, Badhravathi C Manjunath
September-December 2012, 19(3):184-189
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102319  PMID:23230385
Study design : It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE) offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals. Materials and Methods: Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S) and Plaque index (PI) scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 - Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 - Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests. Results: The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI - S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups. Conclusion: The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals.
  3,738 578 7
BRIEF REPORT
Knowledge of the residents at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) about palliative care
Sultan H Alamri
September-December 2012, 19(3):194-197
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102321  PMID:23230387
Background: Palliative care is a rapidly growing subspecialty that aims at improving the quality of life and relieving suffering associated with life threatening disease. Despite its rapid growth and huge demand, the knowledge of health care professionals on palliative care remains inadequate. Objective: This study aims to determine the knowledge of residents at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) on palliative care. Materials and Methods: Through a cross-sectional design, all residents in the hospital were invited to complete a two-part self-administered questionnaire in June 2010. The first part of the questionnaire included variables describing the socio-demographic characteristics and educational background, and the second part developed by palliative care education initiative at Dalhousie University in Canada in 2000 had 25 items on the knowledge of palliative care. Results : Of the 80 residents 65 (81%) responded, the overwhelming majority of whom were Saudis (92.3%) with an equal representation of males and females. The mean age of the participants was 29.1 ± 2.4 years. Less than one-third (29.2%) indicated that they had previous didactic education on palliative care. The percentage of right answers on items reflecting knowledge on palliative care accounted for 29.9% ± 9.9%. No statistically significant difference was found in the level of knowledge among the residents according to their demographics or graduation and training characteristics. Conclusion: Resident physicians enrolled in postgraduate programs have suboptimal knowledge of basic palliative care. Substantial efforts should be made to incorporate a palliative care module into the theoretical and practical training of medical students and resident physicians.
  2,637 360 5
MEDICAL EDUCATION
Attitudes and views of medical students toward anatomy learnt in the preclinical phase at King Khalid University
Mohammed A Kemeir
September-December 2012, 19(3):190-193
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.102320  PMID:23230386
Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the views and attitude of clinical medical students toward gross anatomy courses taught to them in preclinical years and their relevance to their medical practice. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire of 16 items was distributed to 146 clinical students. The study group included both genders (104 males and 42 females). A total of 121 students (83%) responded to the questionnaire. Results: The responses obtained in relation to the clarity of the anatomy course outline its impact on their ability to think and solve problems, develop their skills as members of a team, and its relevance to their clinical practice and their ability to engage in common clinical practices were negative. Conclusion : There is an urgent need to redesign the anatomy curriculum in King Khalid University in order to enable the graduates to deliver adequate health care to the community.
  2,164 345 4
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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010