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   2011| January-April  | Volume 18 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 5, 2011

 
 
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SPECIAL COMMUNICATION
Role of government in public health: Current scenario in India and future scope
Subitha Lakshminarayanan
January-April 2011, 18(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.78635  PMID:21694957
The new agenda for Public Health in India includes the epidemiological transition, demographical transition, environmental changes and social determinants of health. Based on the principles outlined at Alma-Ata in 1978, there is an urgent call for revitalizing primary health care in order to meet these challenges. The role of the government in influencing population health is not limited within the health sector but also by various sectors outside the health systems. This article is a literature review of the existing government machinery for public health needs in India, its success, limitations and future scope. Health system strengthening, human resource development and capacity building and regulation in public health are important areas within the health sector. Contribution to health of a population also derives from social determinants of health like living conditions, nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, education, early child development and social security measures. Population stabilization, gender mainstreaming and empowerment, reducing the impact of climate change and disasters on health, improving community participation and governance issues are other important areas for action. Making public health a shared value across the various sectors is a politically challenging strategy, but such collective action is crucial.
  31,634 1,207 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Academic job satisfaction questionnaire: Construction and validation in Saudi Arabia
Abdullah M Al-Rubaish, Sheikh Idris A Rahim, Mahdi S Abumadini, Lade Wosornu
January-April 2011, 18(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.78630  PMID:21694952
Background: Colleges and universities are becoming increasingly accountable for teaching outcomes in order to meet rigorous accreditation standards. Job satisfaction (JS) seems more difficult to measure in the academic field in view of the complexity of roles, duties and responsibilities. Objectives: To compile and determine the psychometric properties of a proposed Academic Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (AJSQ) suitable for university faculty, and amenable to future upgrading. Materials and Methods: A 46-item five-option Likert-type draft questionnaire on JS was distributed for anonymous self-reporting by all the academic staff of five colleges in University of Dammam (n=340). The outcome measures were (1) factor analysis of the questionnaire items, (2) intra-factor α-Coefficient of Internal Consistency Reliability, (3) inter-factor correlations, (4) comparison of psychometric properties in separately analyzed main faculty subgroups. Results: The response rate was 72.9 percent. Factor analysis extracted eight factors which conjointly explained 60.3 percent of the variance in JS. These factors, in descending order of eigenvalue, were labeled "Authority", "Supervision", "Policies and Facilities", "My Work Itself", "Interpersonal Relationships", "Commitment", "Salary" and "Workload". Cronbach's-α ranged from 0.90 in "Supervision" to 0.63 in "Salary" and "Workload". All inter-factor correlations were positive and significant, ranging from 0.65 to 0.23. The psychometric properties of the instrument in separately analyzed subgroups divided by sex, nationality, college and clinical duties produced fairly comparable findings. Conclusion: The AJSQ demonstrated good overall psychometric properties in terms of construct validity and internal consistency reliability in both the overall sample and its separately analyzed subgroups. Recommendation: To replicate these findings in larger multicenter samples of academic staff.
  13,412 1,756 6
Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia
Abdulaziz F Al-Kaabba, Abdalla A Saeed, Abdelshakour M Abdalla, Hashim A Hassan, Ali A Mustafa
January-April 2011, 18(1):8-12
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.78631  PMID:21694953
Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009. Results: Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153) had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (΁3.3). There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies.
  5,829 763 16
Knowledge, practice and attitude toward epilepsy among primary and secondary school teachers in South Gezira locality, Gezira State, Sudan
Haydar E Babikar, Islam M Abbas
January-April 2011, 18(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.78633  PMID:21694955
Objective: The attitudes toward school pupils with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of school teachers' knowledge of the disorder. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instructions on epilepsy during their training. This study aims to assess school teachers' knowledge, attitude and practice when dealing with epilepsy in school children. Materials and Methods: This study was part of a series mandated by the Gezira Epilepsy Care Programme (GECP), to obtain baseline data for a community-adapted epilepsy education program. A pretested, semi-structured, 35-items questionnaire was the investigational tool. It was used to evaluate the knowledge of the basic facts about epilepsy among school teachers in this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire allowed teachers to express their opinions by means of free answers. The schools were chosen at random but not in a systematic equiprobability design. Two hundred teachers from public primary (100) and secondary (100) schools in the rural area of south Gezira Locality, Gezira State, Central Sudan, were recruited. Results: In this study, the majority of respondents had never been informed about epilepsy and therefore gave evasive answers to many questions. Few of the respondents considered epilepsy as contagious. None of participants objected to having epileptic children in their classes. Only 47 teachers (47%) in the primary schools had any knowledge of the initial procedures to help a child in seizure, presenting reasonable answers, compared to 64 (64%) teachers in the secondary schools. Recommendations: All school teachers should be given some kind of training in health services. The GECP should involve teachers in its current training programs for caregivers and lay association to help epileptic patients.
  5,687 721 16
LETTER TO EDITOR
Periodontal disease: The sixth complication of diabetes
Rajiv Saini, Santosh Saini, RS Sugandha
January-April 2011, 18(1):31-31
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.78636  PMID:21694958
  5,355 787 8
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Drowning in children: Aseer Central Hospital experience, Southwestern Saudi Arabia
Suliman H Al-Fifi, Medhat A Shabana, Mohammed Zayed, Ali M Al-Binali, Mohammed A Al-Shehri
January-April 2011, 18(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.78632  PMID:21694954
Aim: To study the reasons, magnitude and outcome of drowning following submersion in water of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients (0-13) years old who drowned and were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, between January 1st 1999 and December 31st 2009. Results: A total of 19 cases were admitted following submersion in water. The mean age was 5.2 years ±3.8. Majority of victims (94.1%) were from the highland areas. Events most frequently occurred in the summer (46.7%), followed by spring and winter, 33.3% and 20%, respectively. Home events constituted 44.4% of submersion cases. Of these, 55.6% drowned in a washing container, While 53.4% submersed in swimming pools. Twenty-two percent of these accidents occurred in the sea and in wells while 11.1% occurred in a lake. The mean duration of submersion was 4.04 minutes ± 5.35. Cardiac arrest was reported upon arrival at hospital in 42.1% of the victims. There were seven deaths (36.8 %) and in one patient (5.2 %) there was severe brain injury. In all deceased cases, no adults were watching the children when the accidents occurred. Conclusion: Drowning is a significant risk factor facing our children and can claim lives. The media as well as the authority should play a major role in increasing the public awareness to minimize or prevent such a problem.
  4,229 518 4
Characterization of human rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in children under five with acute gastroenteritis in a Saudi Hospital
Obeid E Obeid
January-April 2011, 18(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.78634  PMID:21694956
Objectives: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children. Currently, there is no published data on the prevalence of subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the present study were to assess the rotavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis and to assess the subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the Children and Maternity Hospital in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Children under 5 years of age with gastroenteritis attending the emergency rooms, or hospitalized in the pediatric wards of in the Children and Maternity Hospital in Dammam were included in the study (N=156). Laboratory diagnosis of rotavirus shedding was established using the novel rotavirus STAT-PAK immunochromatographical test. Subgroup and G-serotype of the positive stool specimens were analyzed by the ELISA method. Results and Conclusions: Using the novel immmunochromatographic assay, 37 samples were shown to be positive for rotavirus (23.7%). Subgroup I (serotype 2) was found to constitute 5.4% of the isolates and subgroup II (serotypes 1, 3 and 4) was found to constitute 56.7% of the isolates, whereas 37.8% were non-typeable. A survey of serotypes of rotavirus in the whole region as well as in the whole of Saudi Arabia will provide important information about the subgroups and groups of rotavirus in the community and may help in assessing the success of the rotavirus vaccine in the future.
  3,887 497 4
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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010