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   2010| January-April  | Volume 17 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 7, 2010

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Isolation and identification of microbes associated with mobile phones in Dammam in eastern Saudi Arabia
Amira H.A Al-Abdalall
January-April 2010, 17(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68783  PMID:22022665
Objective: This study was conducted to determine microbial contamination of mobile phones in the city of Dammam, in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia, and identify the most important microbial species associated with these phones in order to take the necessary remedial measures. Materials and Methods: The analysis of a total of 202 samples was done to identify fungal and pathogenic bacteria isolates. Sterile swabs were firmly passed on the handset, the buttons and the screens of mobile phones, then inoculated into media of bacteria and fungi. Frequency distribution of isolates were calculated. Results: There were 737 isolated of the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria sicca, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterobacter aerogenes at the rate of 56.58, 13.57, 8.01, 7.73, 6.51, 3.66, 2.85 and 1.09% respectively. There were fungal isolates as follows: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus ochraceus at the rate of 29.07, 26.74, 20.93, 10.47, 6.98, 2.33, 2.33, 1.16%, respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that all mobile phones under consideration were infected by several microbes, most of which belonged to the natural flora of the human body as well as airborne fungi and soil. This means that it is necessary to sterilize hands after contact with a phone since it is a source of disease transmission.
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7TH GCC Medical Colleges Conference, 17-19 November 2009, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

January-April 2010, 17(1):50-67
  10,216 545 -
Simulation-based medical teaching and learning
Abdulmohsen H Al-Elq
January-April 2010, 17(1):35-40
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68787  PMID:22022669
One of the most important steps in curriculum development is the introduction of simulation- based medical teaching and learning. Simulation is a generic term that refers to an artificial representation of a real world process to achieve educational goals through experiential learning. Simulation based medical education is defined as any educational activity that utilizes simulation aides to replicate clinical scenarios. Although medical simulation is relatively new, simulation has been used for a long time in other high risk professions such as aviation. Medical simulation allows the acquisition of clinical skills through deliberate practice rather than an apprentice style of learning. Simulation tools serve as an alternative to real patients. A trainee can make mistakes and learn from them without the fear of harming the patient. There are different types and classification of simulators and their cost vary according to the degree of their resemblance to the reality, or 'fidelity'. Simulation- based learning is expensive. However, it is cost-effective if utilized properly. Medical simulation has been found to enhance clinical competence at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It has also been found to have many advantages that can improve patient safety and reduce health care costs through the improvement of the medical provider's competencies. The objective of this narrative review article is to highlight the importance of simulation as a new teaching method in undergraduate and postgraduate education.
  7,971 1,280 89
Mothers' knowledge of child health matters: Are we doing enough?
Ibrahim H Al-Ayed
January-April 2010, 17(1):22-28
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68785  PMID:22022667
Background: Child care is mostly the responsibility of mothers. Several studies have revealed that the mothers' education has a positive impact on their knowledge and practice in child health matters. Objectives: The study was undertaken to assess the level of mothers' knowledge on certain aspects of child health care and whether there is any correlation between their level of knowledge and the number of years of formal education they have had. Materials and Methods: A two-part questionnaire was distributed. The first part comprised information about mother's nationality, age, work, level of education and number of children, in addition to sources of health information and the role of school education in child health matters. The second part contained 40 statements about different aspects of child health matters. A structured interview with the mothers who attended with their children at the pediatric outpatient clinic of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh during July and August 2007, was conducted by a trained non-medical research assistant using the items and statements of the questionnaire as a base. A knowledge score was calculated from the number of correct answers. The maximum score was 40. An arbitrary cut-off score of 25 was considered satisfactory. Results: Three-hundred-seventy-three questionnaires were completed. The mean score of the total sample was 25 (out of 40) and the minimum score obtained was 14, and the maximum 36. Fifty-eight percent scored 25 or more. Scrutiny of individual items on the questionnaire revealed significant and serious gaps in mother's knowledge. No statistically significant correlation was evident between mothers' knowledge of child health related matters and level of education, age, or number of children. Conclusion: Mothers' knowledge of child health related matters is deficient. At present, knowledge on child health matters taught in schools in the Kingdom is inadequate. Health care institutions play a limited role in health education. There should be proper effective practical means of disseminating information on child health matters among mothers in our community.
  7,988 983 9
Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia
Nadira A Al-Baghli, Aqeel J AL-Ghamdi, Khalid A Al-Turki, Ahmad G El-Zubaier, Bader A Al-Mostafa, Fadel A Al-Baghli, Mahmood M Al-Ameer
January-April 2010, 17(1):15-21
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68784  PMID:22022666
Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7%) were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.
  7,097 793 9
Outbreak of food borne Salmonella among guests of a wedding ceremony: The role of cultural factors
Abdullah S Aljoudi, Abdulaziz Al-Mazam, Abdul J Choudhry
January-April 2010, 17(1):29-34
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68786  PMID:22022668
Objective: In response to a large number of cases of gastroenteritis reporting to Sulyyel hospital, an outbreak investigation was conducted to identify its source, to assess its extent and to make recommendations on the prevention of such outbreaks in the future. Material and Methods: A case was defined as any individual who developed diarrhea with any of the following symptoms: Abdominal pain, fever or vomiting within three days of eating at the wedding ceremony. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify food items and circumstances responsible for this outbreak. Results: A total of 283 individuals were interviewed, 88 of whom developed gastroenteritis, most commonly manifested by diarrhea (100%), abdominal pain (94.3%) and fever (86.4%). The majority of persons interviewed were Saudis (89.1%) and 21.6% were males. The median incubation period was 20.6 ΁ 2.77 hours and the epidemic curve suggested a common point source outbreak. Out of 9 food items and drinks served at the wedding ceremony, 3 food items were significantly associated with illness: meat ranked first (RR=16.7, 95% CI=2.37-115.8), followed by rice (RR=13.6 95% CI=1.95-93.61), and restaurant made sweets (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.35-2.58). Out of 62 stool samples collected from cases, 40 (64.5 %) grew Salmonella group C non-typhoid. Conclusion: Salmonella was considered the causative agent of this food-borne outbreak. Meat and rice served at the wedding party were the food items incriminated. Time, temperature misuse, inadequate heat treatment, and unhygienic handling were the most important factors causing this outbreak.
  5,429 777 6
Perceptions of secondary technical schools students in Assiut, upper Egypt, about AIDS: Effect of an educational intervention
Mohei El-Din A Selim, Etemad A.A El-Shereef
January-April 2010, 17(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68782  PMID:22022664
Background and Purpose: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a great threat to the youth. The aim is to assess the knowledge of secondary technical schools students on AIDS, identify related misconceptions, and measure the effect of a short health education program on their level of knowledge. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on 575 secondary technical schools students in Assiut City, recruited through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. A health education program was implemented, and its effect assessed through pre-post testing. Results: The age range of the students was 16 to 20 years, with more girls (57.0%). Only 30.8% had satisfactory knowledge about AIDS in the pretest. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge were revealed after program implementation (P<0.001). Students who were Muslim, of urban residence, and had mobile phones had significantly higher scores (P=0.037, 0.004, 0.038 respectively). The most common misconceptions were the definition of AIDS according to transmission, and phobias related to transmission, which decreased after the intervention. Multivariate analysis showed that the statistically significant independent predictors of the change in knowledge score after the intervention were age, religion and the health education program. Conclusion: Secondary technical schools students in Assiut city have a major deficiency in knowledge and many misconceptions regarding AIDS. The educational intervention had a positive impact on their knowledge, but a less marked effect on misconceptions. Knowledge was affected by age and religious belief. It is recommended that more health educational efforts tailored to needs and with approaches suitable to community cultures and values be introduced.
  4,192 471 -
Mobile eye services: Literature review with special reference to the experience of Al-Basar International Foundation
Adel A Rushood
January-April 2010, 17(1):46-49
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68789  PMID:22022671
Purpose: To evaluate the concept of quality assured mobile eye services (MES) in implementing the vision 2020 initiative. Materials and Methods: Literature review as well as the medical records of Al-Basar International Foundation (BIF) on MES. Emphasis was focused on the causes of blindness, objectives, operation, management and the benefits of MES, a critical appraisal of MES, training for MES and the relationship with other organizations and concerned government agencies. Findings: More than 38 countries have been included in this exercise during which more than 620 eye camps have been conducted. More than two million people have benefited from the services provided including medicines and glasses in these eye camps and about 180,000 sight restoring surgeries performed for cataract, glaucoma etc. Conclusion: Quality assured MES are a very important means of tackling the problems of blindness and implementing the vision 2020 initiative. The adoption of this concept by major stake-holders in the prevention of blindness (e.g. WHO, IAPB) will bring an additional momentum to the achievement of this noble goal.
  3,967 361 -
Medical students' evaluation of their exposure to the teaching of ethics
Ali I Al-Haqwi, Ali M Al-Shehri
January-April 2010, 17(1):41-45
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68788  PMID:22022670
Background: The subject of Biomedical Ethics has become recognized as an essential integral component in the undergraduate curriculum of medical students. Objectives: (1) To review the current Biomedical Ethics Course offered at the College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS). (2) To explore the perception of medical students on the different components of the course. Materials and Methods: The medical students were requested to participate in the study at the end of the course by filling in a pre-designed questionnaire. A qualitative approach was used also to examine their perceptions about certain components of the course. Results: Forty-one medical students participated in this study. All students expressed their strong agreement on the importance of their learning biomedical ethics. Their views about the role of Biomedical Ethics were also considered. These include professional development, assessment of ethical competencies, and the timing of the teaching of ethics. Conclusion: The students provided valuable comments that were supported by the literature reviews. Medical Students' views of the teaching of the various components of biomedical ethics are important and should be sought in the planning of a curriculum.
  3,218 495 3
Professionalism today
Abdullah M Al-Rubaish
January-April 2010, 17(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/1319-1683.68781  PMID:22022663
  2,762 451 -


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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010