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   2001| January-April  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 30, 2012

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Risk factors of bronchial asthma in Bahrah, Saudi Arabia
Abdulaziz Al-Mazam, Ashry G Mohamed
January-April 2001, 8(1):33-39
Background: Asthma is a common health problem whose prevalence in Saudi Arabia has risen over the last few decades. Brick factories in the city of Bahrah have exacerbated the problem, and increasing numbers of asthma cases are attending local primary health care centers. Objective: Determine the risk factors of asthma in Bahrah. Materials and Methods: The study was comprised of 110 cases of bronchial asthma resident in Bahrah who were diagnosed by the treating physicians and 110 healthy controls matched in age and sex. A questionnaire was completed from cases and controls, consisting of data regarding personal, familial, indoor and outdoor environmental factors that may be potential risk factors to asthma. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to assess risk factors. Results: The mean ages of cases and controls were 22.4 (΁ 16.7) and 22.8 (΁ 16.1) years, respectively. Each group consisted of 64 males (58%) and 46 (42%) females. There was a significant association between distance from houses to brick factories and bronchial asthma (Chi square for linear trend = 26.6, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living within one kilometer of a brick factory (OR=5.1, CI=2.33-11.16), family history (OR=4.6, CI=2.16-9.78), allergic rhinitis (OR=3.39, CI=1.49-7.69), skin atopy (OR=4.6, CI=1.53-13.87) and recurrent respiratory tract infections (OR=4.1, CI=1.79-9.22) were independent risk factors for asthma in Bahrah. Conclusions and recommendations: Brick factories, family history and history of rhinitis, skin atopy, or recurrent respiratory tract infections are risk factors of bronchial asthma. An in-depth study to asses air pollution in Bahrah is recom­mended. People are advised not to live near brick factories.
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Sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant mothers and new born infants in eastern province, Saudi Arabia
Abdulaziz A Al-Mulhim, Abdulrahman M Al-Qurashi
January-April 2001, 8(1):45-48
Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoa of worldwide distribution. In immunocompetent adults, it is usually the cause of asymptomatic infection. However, infection during pregnancy poses a special risk because of the teratogenic effect of toxoplasma. Objective: D etermine the sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and newborn infants in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province. Methods: In this hospital-based study, sera from 175 pregnant females were screened for toxoplasma IgG and IgM. Results and Conclusion: A very low number (N=1/175, 0.57%) of pregnant mothers seroconverted during pregnancy, although many (N=69/175, 39.4%) were recorded with inactive toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Delivery was normal in all cases except for a small number (N=1/175, 0.57%) of newborns (as recorded from cord blood) who were positive for toxoplasmosis.
  2,154 192 -
The frequency of health-related behaviors among Saudi adolescents visiting primary health care centers in Riyadh city
Eissa I Aleissa
January-April 2001, 8(1):19-26
Background: The primary aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of some of the health risk associated behavior like insufficient amount of exercise, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, illicit drug use, driving below age of 18, and illegal sexual practices among the Saudi adolescents in Riyadh city. The second was to study the association between cigarette smoking and the above behaviors. Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey with 1473 Saudi adolescents, 852 males (57.8%) and 621 females (42.2%) aged 11 to 21 years attending the selected 10 Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) were invited to complete a 23-item questionnaire. Part of the questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of some adolescent behavior. These questionnaires were collected within a period of one month from 15 May to 15 June 1998. The PHCCs were selected randomly in Riyadh city. Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 12.7%, males smoking more than females (19.0% vs. 4.0%); male smokers exercised significantly less than nonsmokers (p<0.025). Only 4.5% of the sample reported alcohol use, 6.4% reported illicit drug use, and 8.0% reported illegal sexual practice. There is a statistically significant association between smoking and other risk behavior. It was found that 41.1% of males below the age of 18 drive a car, and 45.1% of the study sample that drive had a car accident. Conclusions: The prevalence of illicit drug use, alcohol intake, and illegal sex in Riyadh city is much less than in the west. Cigarette smoking is an antecedent to more negative behavior. Antismoking programs including the prevention of the sale and use of cigarettes in public places are needed to decrease its prevalence. The application of firm traffic laws is also essential.
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Cost of the drugs dispensed from primary health care centers for summer visitors to Aseer region
Abdullah I Al-Sharif, Yahia M Al-Khaldi
January-April 2001, 8(1):41-44
Objectives: Recognize the patterns and the cost of the drugs dispensed to summer visitors who attended Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Aseer region. Methods: This study was conducted in Aseer region during the summer of 1998. The investigators designed and distributed special forms on which were blanks for names, age, sex, diagnosis and drugs that were prescribed for summer visitors who attended PHCCs in Aseer region. At the end of season, all the forms were collected and analyzed manually by well-trained nurses and assistant pharmacists. The cost of the drugs was calculated according to the price list provided by the Medical Supply Department. Results: A total of 96327 forms were evaluated. These represented 25% of the total number of prescriptions issued by PHCC physicians during the summer season. The total cost of the dispensed drugs was estimated as 190533 SR (50808$). About 20% of what was dispensed was for summer visitors who had utilized the PHCC services in Aseer region. Antibiotics and painkillers cost 42% and 21% of the total cost respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that the cost of drugs for summer visitors in Aseer region was 20.5% of the total drug cost. This additional cost should be considered in planning the drug budget.
  1,934 152 -
Evidence-based medicine: Conceptualization unto application
Hassan Bella
January-April 2001, 8(1):15-18
  1,718 134 -
Quality of health education posters in primary health care centers in Al-Khobar town, Eastern province
Latifa S Al-Sowielem
January-April 2001, 8(1):27-31
Background: Health Education (HE) is vital to each of the seven other central ele­ments of Public Health Care (PHC). HE must be carefully planned and implemented. A crucial part of HE is planning, production and placement of effective HE posters. Objective: Assess the quality of health education posters in Al-Khobar PHC centers. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a sample of 138 HE posters in three PHC centers in Al-Khobar was conducted. The quality of posters in relation to set criteria was measured using a data sheet and scoring system developed by the investigator. Results: The health education subjects displayed were among the common health problems in Saudi Arabia in 134 (97.1 %) of the posters.More than one-third (34.8%) had been displayed for more than one year. In 74 (53.6%) of the posters, the source of scientific information was unknown. The assessment showed that 109 (79%) posters were of optimal quality. Conclusion: The study showed that the health education posters in PHC centers in Al-Khobar were relatively satisfactory, though they did not fulfill some of the required criteria. Health education posters should be included in the assessment of health education programs in primary health care centers.
  1,582 159 -


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Online since 05th September, 2010