Year : 2016 | Volume
: 23 | Issue : 2 | Page : 88--93
Proportion and determinants of tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients attending the antiretroviral therapy center attached to a Medical College in South India
Vandana Hiregoudar1, Bellara Raghavendra2, Aravind Karinagannavar3, Wahid Khan2, Sneha Kamble2, Timmalapur G Goud2
1 Department of Community Medicine, SDMCMS and Hospital, Sattur, Dharwad, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, VIMS, Bellary, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, MIMS, Mysore, Karnataka, India
Background: The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has caused a re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB). In persons infected with both HIV and TB, the lifetime risk of developing TB disease is 50–70% compared to 10% in HIV-negative individuals. India has world's 3rd highest HIV burden and is also one of the countries endemic for TB, so the country faces a dual epidemic of HIV and TB. Objectives: To find out the proportion and determinants of TB in HIV-positive subjects. Subjects and Methods: This study was undertaken at the ART center from June 01, 2012, to May 31, 2013. HIV-positive subjects aged above 15 years who had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than 6 months were included in the study. Nonprobability purposive sampling was adopted. A predesigned semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data.
Results: A total of 536 HIV-positive people were interviewed, 58.8% of whom were males, 79.1% were Hindu, 61.0% had up to high school education, and 57% were unskilled laborers. About 63% were married, 40% were from the upper lower class, and 60% were from urban areas. For the majority (89.1%), the probable mode of transmission of HIV was by the heterosexual route. TB co-infection was present in 38.4% subjects. The most common form of TB was extra-pulmonary in subjects on antituberculous treatment (47.3%) and among old cases (57.6%). On bivariate analysis, 136 (42.4%) married subjects and those from rural areas were more commonly affected by TB compared to subjects who were unmarried and from urban areas with odds ratio (OR): 1.555, confidence interval (CI): 1.077–2.246 and OR: 1.523, CI: 1.061–2.185, respectively. The proportion of TB was high among subjects who lived in overcrowded houses 130 (44.2%), and who had a habit of alcohol use compared to others with OR: 1.731, CI: 1.734–2.179 and OR: 1.524, CI: 1.045–2.223, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that TB among people living with HIV/AIDS was highest in persons living in overcrowded houses (OR: 1.706, CI: 1.185–2.458) and those who consumed alcohol (OR: 1.605, CI: 1.090–2.362). Conclusions: Demographic factors like male gender, middle age, living in the rural areas, consumption of alcohol, and living in overcrowded houses were found with a higher proportion of TB. The use of highly active ART appeared to progressively decrease but did not completely eliminate the risk of TB.
Department of Community Medicine, SDMCMS and Hospital, Manjushree Nagar, Sattur, Dharwad - 580 009, Karnataka
|How to cite this article:|
Hiregoudar V, Raghavendra B, Karinagannavar A, Khan W, Kamble S, Goud TG. Proportion and determinants of tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients attending the antiretroviral therapy center attached to a Medical College in South India.J Fam Community Med 2016;23:88-93
|How to cite this URL:|
Hiregoudar V, Raghavendra B, Karinagannavar A, Khan W, Kamble S, Goud TG. Proportion and determinants of tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients attending the antiretroviral therapy center attached to a Medical College in South India. J Fam Community Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Jan 27 ];23:88-93
Available from: https://www.jfcmonline.com/article.asp?issn=2230-8229;year=2016;volume=23;issue=2;spage=88;epage=93;aulast=Hiregoudar;type=0