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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2021
Volume 28 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-73

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Bibliometric analysis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) literature published in Web of Science 2019–2020 Highly accessed article p. 1
Rai K Farooq, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Murtaza Ashiq, Nadeem Siddique, Shakil Ahmad
Coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China, turned into a pandemic in record time. Communication of disease presentation and mechanism of spread remain keys to getting ahead of the virus and limiting its spread beyond the capacity of management. Owing to huge academic focus and pandemic concern around the globe, this bibliometric analysis investigated research productivity related to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic using the Web of Science database. The relevant data were harvested, and search query was further refined by publication years (2020 OR 2019) and document types (article, book chapter, and proceedings paper). Finally, 6694 records were imported and downloaded in Plaintext and BibTeX formats on August 1, 2020. The data analysis was performed using MS Excel, VOS viewer, and Biblioshiny software. Of the 6694 publications that appeared in that period, the USA and Chinese research institutions topped the numbers. At the same time, the Journal of Medical Virology and CUREUS (Cureus Journal of Medical Science), remained favorite journals for publications. The pattern of multi-author publications has outstripped that of single-authors. Apart from COVID-19 and the novel coronavirus, the important keywords mentioned included pandemic, pneumonia, epidemiology, public health, outbreak, epidemic, China, infection, and treatment. The analysis shows a strong local research response from China, with large teams reporting on the disease outbreak. Subsequent studies will document a global response as the virus spreads worldwide. The initial research related to the current coronavirus outbreak was reported from within China. The data and patterns were supposed to alter as the virus spread globally.
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Correlates of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia p. 8
Bashayr A Bajaber, Mohammed A Alshareef
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes that can cause visual impairment. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the determinants of DR in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending the diabetic center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of type 2 diabetic patients registered at the diabetic center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital. Data was collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Grading of DR was done by slit-lamp examination and colored fundus photographs. Descriptive analysis included frequency and percentage for categorical variables, and mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and interquartile range, for continuous variables. Chi-square test used to test for association between two categorical variables; Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate employed to compare continuous variable between two groups. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify correlates of DR after controlling for confounders. RESULTS: The study comprised 251 type 2 diabetic patients aged between 28 and 80 years, with an arithmetic mean of 56.8 and standard deviation of ±9.9 years. The prevalence of DR was 54.6%; mild nonproliferative (NP) type was present in 52.6% of the patients with DR, whereas severe NP type was present in 15.3% of them; the proliferative type was present in only 4.4% of those with DR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients who had had diabetes for a 11 to 16 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.52, P = 0.035), patients who did not take daily medications on time (AOR = 9.75, P = 0.008), patients who did not go for fundus examination annually (AOR = 3.62, P = 0.011), and patients with uncontrolled diabetes (AOR = 12.18, P < 0.001) were at higher significant risk for DR. Patients not treated with insulin were 70% less likely to develop DR (AOR = 0.30, P = 0.015). An increase of one unit in body mass index was significantly associated with increase in the probability of developing DR by 11% (AOR = 1.11, P = 0.024). CONCLUSION: DR is very prevalent in type 2 diabetic patients attending the diabetic center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah Al-Mukarramah; particularly the mild NP type.
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Associations between intimate partner violence and pregnancy complications: A cross-sectional study in India p. 17
Durga B Avanigadda, Ravisankar A Kulasekaran
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence rates of violence of the intimate partner affects the maternal health of the woman that sometimes ends in maternal mortality as well as the possibility of an adverse effect on the newborn. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of intimate physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) on mothers and examine the association between IPV and pregnancy complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for the present study were retrieved from the National Family Health Survey-IV (2015–2016). In total, 79,729 women completed the domestic violence questions, but 24,882 were considered for this analysis. The study was restricted to currently married women aged 15–49 who had given birth to at least one child in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between self-reporting pregnancy complications with the experience of IPV was examined using Chi-square test, followed by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The study findings show that IPV, specifically physical and sexual violence, are associated with pregnancy complications. The results show that 31.6% of the women had experienced some form of IPV. The factors associated with IPV included husband's alcohol habit, women who had witnessed parental violence, and women whose husbands had shown high marital controlling behavior. The high level of pregnancy complications was reported by women who had experienced sexual violence, emotional violence, and women whose husbands display three or more specific behaviors. CONCLUSION: Confidential screening for IPV and prompt referral to support services could be crucial in improving women's reproductive health.
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Screening for depression, anxiety, and obsessive–compulsive disorders among secondary school students in Al-Hasa Region, Saudi Arabia p. 28
Abdul S Khan, Ahmed H Alalawi, Mohammed H Alalawi, Hassan A Alsahaf, Mahdi S Albahrani, Fatimah A Alhasawi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and assess their severity in both male and female secondary school students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary school students in Al Hasa region. A sample of student was selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using valid self administered questionnaires (Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Anxiety Disorder 7, and Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive scale). Study was approved by institutional ethical review committee, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. SPSS used for data entry and analysis. Chi-square test was used to test for statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 1783 of students, 930 males and 853 females, were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and OCD was 76.2%, 49.9%, and 61.6%, respectively. Most of the diagnosed students had mild forms of the diseases, fewer had moderate form, and very few had severe forms. The most significant risk factor was gender, but other risk factors were significant for some of the diseases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the three diseases is high and significantly associated with gender. Further work is needed to evaluate this high prevalence and assess the severity of the diseases and other risk factors.
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Factors associated with Achilles tendon pain in cyclists in eastern province of Saudi Arabia p. 35
Abdullatif K Althunyan, Magdy A Darwish, Amr A Sabra, Hatem A. M Alqahtani, Sameerah M Mutabgani
BACKGROUND: Cyclists are predisposed to different types of injuries whose patterns and distribution change over time. During bicycling, the high demand on lower extremities to produce speed places high load on the legs resulting in overuse injuries of which pain in the Achilles tendon is one. This study assessed Achilles tendon pain in cyclists in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of active cyclists in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected using validated and pretested web-based self-administered questionnaire. Of the 511 cyclists invited, 311 completed the questionnaire yielding 60.62% response rate. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive statistics included calculation of frequencies and percentages for categorical variables, and median, mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Chi-square test measured the associations between Achilles pain and various risk factors. Student's t-test, or Mann–Whitney test as appropriate, was used to compare continuous variables. RESULTS: Ten percent of mature and 9.1% professional cyclists reported that they had Achilles tendon pain. The pain was reported by significantly higher proportion of cyclists who raced (25%) and cyclists who rode mountain bicycles off-road (60.0%); average duration of the Achilles tendon pain was 7 days. Of the cyclists who had Achilles tendon pain, 32.1% reported that the pain increased when they were in running load and 28.6% reported increased pain in cycling load. Most cyclists described the pain as mild (67.9%) and moderate (32.1%). Overweight and underweight cyclists reported significantly higher rates of Achilles tendon pain (60% and 12.5%) compared to other body mass index classes. CONCLUSION: Achilles tendon pain commonly affects both amateur and professional cyclists. The study underpins the importance of a gradual increase in the training load, proper conditioning, bike fitting, and the maintenance of ideal body weight of cyclists to prevent Achilles tendon pain.
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Gender divides in the clinical profiles of patients with acute myocardial infarction at a tertiary care center in South India p. 42
Neethu M George, Lakshmi Ramamoorthy, Santhosh Satheesh, Kumari M Jayapragasam
BACKGROUND: Early identification of myocardial infarction (MI) is a determinant in the provision of appropriate treatment modalities. The focus of the present study is on the identification of gender-based differences in risk factors, clinical manifestations, and coronary angiography findings in patients presenting with MI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients admitted with MI at a tertiary care center in South India during March 2016 to June 2017. Selected 120 male and 120 female consecutive patients admitted with acute MI, who had survived and been stabilized. Data was collected using a pre-tested structure data sheet. Appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Participants were homogenous as regards age (P < 0.107); majority of men and women were from the rural areas. About 32.5% of the men interpreted the pain as due to a cardiac problem or indigestion, whereas 60.8% of the women thought it was fatigue/muscle pain. The self-interpretation or perception of pain in both genders was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Compared to the men, the females increasingly presented with atypical symptoms (P = 0.005). Regarding ST-elevated MI, male preponderance was noted (P = 0.004)). Considering the anatomical location of MI, the presentation of Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction (IWMI) was predominant in females compared to men (P = 0.003). The majority of men had increased presentation of single-vessel disease compared to women (P = 0.02), whereas normal coronaries and double-vessel disease were found statistically significantly higher in females (P = 0.03 and P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Public education is needed on the atypical presentations which are common with women than in men. The public should, therefore, be informed of those symptoms and how to recognize them so that they may seek medical care promptly.
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Patient satisfaction with virtual clinic during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in primary healthcare, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia p. 48
Khalid G Alharbi, Mohammed N Aldosari, Abdularhman M Alhassan, Khalid A Alshallal, Abdullah M Altamimi, Bader A Altulaihi
BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, officially known as COVID-19, was first reported in Wuhan, China in December of 2019. Since that time, medical services in Saudi Arabia have adapted to the situation by delivering medical care via virtual clinics. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess patients' level of satisfaction with virtual clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among patients who had experienced virtual clinics in primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online validated questionnaire was sent to all participants who had at least one virtual visit between March 2020 to July 2020. The data sought included demographics, level of satisfaction and questions related to their experience with virtual clinics. Computed frequencies and percentages for categorical variables, and median, mean, and standard deviation for continuous variables. Satisfaction scores were compared between groups using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients completed the questionnaire (response rate 97.5%); 54% were male. The participants were divided into three age groups: 18–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years. Overall level of patients' satisfaction with virtual clinic was 68.1%. Factors statistically significantly associated with satisfaction included gender, age group and level of education (post-graduate and middle school) and being well-informed on the use of telemedicine. Specific age groups that were significant were 18–39 and 40–59 years; 50.2% of the males found telemedicine very convenient, compared to only 36.1% females. Family medicine clinics were the most commonly visited virtual clinics, whereas obstetrics and gynecology clinics were the least attended virtual clinics. The inability to meet the health-care professional face-to-face was reported by 53.8% as the most important disadvantage. CONCLUSION: This study shows a high level of satisfaction with virtual clinics in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic despite the service being relatively new in healthcare service in the country. Our study demonstrated that satisfaction was linked to age, gender, education and the type of clinic used.
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A case report of Jarcho–Levin syndrome p. 55
Bhamidipaty K Durgaprasad, Sonica Sharma, Payala Vijayalakshmi
Jarcho–Levin syndrome (JLS) is a rare, congenital disorder, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, that represents a spectrum of clinical and radiographic abnormalities of the spine and chest. The present case report discusses two siblings, an 11 year old girl and a 6 year old boy, diagnosed as cases of JLS based on family history and clinical-radiological findings. The main features of the syndrome are shortness of stature with a spinal abnormality, multiple abnormal vertebral defects, and a small malformed “fan-like” or “crab-like” rib cage due to posterior fusion and anterior flaring of the ribs, leading to short-trunk dwarfism. The spinal and rib malformations result in a small thoracic cavity, not capable of accommodating the growing lungs, causing thoracic insufficiency resulting in severe cardiac and respiratory complications and frequent chest infections. The diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological findings, characteristic physical appearance, symptoms of thoracic insufficiency, family history, consanguineous parents, skeletal survey, or specialized genetic tests for mutations. Milder forms are compatible with life.
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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and acute nonicteric hepatitis: A case report from Asokoro, Nigeria p. 59
Isaac O Akerele, Chidi V Nnabuchi, Adaeze C Oreh
We report our first case of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection with hepatitis B co-infection who presented with fever, catarrh, headaches, fatigue, and loss of smell. He had a history of chronic hepatitis B infection which appeared to be inactive given a history of normal outpatient liver tests prior to admission for COVID-19. Following the positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction diagnosis with COVID-19, liver function tests revealed evidence of hepatitis with elevated bilirubin and liver enzymes and deranged full blood count findings.
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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and healthcare delivery system p. 63
Fahad A Al-Muhanna, Ahmed A Alkuwaiti, Marwan J Alwazzeh
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Erratum: “Comparative study of the efficacy and safety of intranasal azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone furoate in the treatment of allergic rhinitis” p. 65

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Arabic Abstracts p. 66

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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010