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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-16

Correlates of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia


1 Department of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Family Medicine, Security Force Hospital, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bashayr A Bajaber
Department of Family Medicine, Joint Program of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 24353, Makkah Al-Mukarramah 21955
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_334_20

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BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes that can cause visual impairment. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the determinants of DR in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending the diabetic center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of type 2 diabetic patients registered at the diabetic center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital. Data was collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Grading of DR was done by slit-lamp examination and colored fundus photographs. Descriptive analysis included frequency and percentage for categorical variables, and mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and interquartile range, for continuous variables. Chi-square test used to test for association between two categorical variables; Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate employed to compare continuous variable between two groups. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify correlates of DR after controlling for confounders. RESULTS: The study comprised 251 type 2 diabetic patients aged between 28 and 80 years, with an arithmetic mean of 56.8 and standard deviation of ±9.9 years. The prevalence of DR was 54.6%; mild nonproliferative (NP) type was present in 52.6% of the patients with DR, whereas severe NP type was present in 15.3% of them; the proliferative type was present in only 4.4% of those with DR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients who had had diabetes for a 11 to 16 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.52, P = 0.035), patients who did not take daily medications on time (AOR = 9.75, P = 0.008), patients who did not go for fundus examination annually (AOR = 3.62, P = 0.011), and patients with uncontrolled diabetes (AOR = 12.18, P < 0.001) were at higher significant risk for DR. Patients not treated with insulin were 70% less likely to develop DR (AOR = 0.30, P = 0.015). An increase of one unit in body mass index was significantly associated with increase in the probability of developing DR by 11% (AOR = 1.11, P = 0.024). CONCLUSION: DR is very prevalent in type 2 diabetic patients attending the diabetic center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah Al-Mukarramah; particularly the mild NP type.


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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010