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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 157-162

Incidence and risk factors associated with hypoglycemia among patients with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review

1 Department of Family Medicine, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Adult Nephrology, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sultan K Al Dalbhi
Department of Adult Nephrology, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, P.O. Box: 270443, Riyadh 11159
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_304_19

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Hypoglycemia is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), more so if they have diabetes as well. The occurrence of hypoglycemia in CKD is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, both of which are treatable and preventable. This review summarizes the incidence and risk factors associated with hypoglycemia among patients with CKD. The meta-analysis was performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. A search was done on PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature for cohort studies in English published between January 2000 and August 2019 using search terms related to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), chronic kidney disease (chronic renal failure OR renal failure), and incidence (risk OR epidemiology OR risk factors). Summary measures were calculated using random-effects model. A total of 5 studies involving 311,817 persons were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled incidence of hypoglycemia in patients with CKD was 0.188 (confidence interval [CI] = 0.097–0.287). The incidence of hypoglycemia was significantly higher in patients with CKD than in patients without CKD (Relative risk [RR] = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.86–1.92,P < 0.0001). No heterogeneity was reported between the studies (I2 = 0%, P > 0.05), and publication bias was also found. Females, patients who had diabetes mellitus of long duration, and those on antidiabetic drugs such as insulin and sulfonylureas were at risk of developing hypoglycemia in CKD as per narrative review. The incidence of hypoglycemia in patients with CKD is high. Therefore, there is need to closely monitor affected individuals so that appropriate management protocols could be set up. Further probing of various risk factors for hypoglycemia in CKD patients is necessary for early detection and initiation of timely preventive and curative measures.

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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010