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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-24

Diabetic retinopathy and the associated risk factors in diabetes type 2 patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia

1 Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Pediatric Endocrinologist, Diabetes Center, Aseer Central Hospital, Aseer Region, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Razia A Ahmed
Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 641, Abha 6142
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8229.172225

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Objectives: To assess the proportion and grades of retinopathy and its risk factors in diabetes type 2 patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 401 type 2 diabetic patients. A questionnaire and checklist were used to collect the data. Retinopathy was diagnosed and graded by fundus photographs and slit lamp examination. The duration of diabetes, age of patients, age at onset of diabetes, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c level, blood pressure, and complications were noted. Results: The mean age of male and female patients was 54.93 and 54.25 years; 57.6% were males. The mean age of onset and mean duration of diabetes were 43.91 and 13.4 years, respectively. The proportion of retinopathy was 36.4%. Grades of retinopathy were: Mild 57.5%, moderate 19.9%, severe nonproliferative 11%, and proliferative retinopathy 11.6%; 7.2% of patients had maculopathy. Retinopathy was significantly associated with older age, younger age at onset, longer duration of disease, poorly controlled blood sugar, hypertension, insulin use; the presence of neuropathy and nephropathy appeared as a significant risk. Younger age at onset, longer duration, and insulin use appeared as the strongest predictors for diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: More than a third (36.4%) of the diabetic patients attending a diabetic center had retinopathy. The control of the risk factors may reduce both prevalence and consequences of retinopathy.

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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010