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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 35-40 Table of Contents     

Simulation-based medical teaching and learning

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication7-Sep-2010

Correspondence Address:
Abdulmohsen H Al-Elq
Associate Professor, Consultant Internist / Endocrinologist, Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahd Hospital of the University, P.O. Box 40145, Al-Khobar 31952
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-1683.68787

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One of the most important steps in curriculum development is the introduction of simulation- based medical teaching and learning. Simulation is a generic term that refers to an artificial representation of a real world process to achieve educational goals through experiential learning. Simulation based medical education is defined as any educational activity that utilizes simulation aides to replicate clinical scenarios. Although medical simulation is relatively new, simulation has been used for a long time in other high risk professions such as aviation. Medical simulation allows the acquisition of clinical skills through deliberate practice rather than an apprentice style of learning. Simulation tools serve as an alternative to real patients. A trainee can make mistakes and learn from them without the fear of harming the patient. There are different types and classification of simulators and their cost vary according to the degree of their resemblance to the reality, or 'fidelity'. Simulation- based learning is expensive. However, it is cost-effective if utilized properly. Medical simulation has been found to enhance clinical competence at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It has also been found to have many advantages that can improve patient safety and reduce health care costs through the improvement of the medical provider's competencies. The objective of this narrative review article is to highlight the importance of simulation as a new teaching method in undergraduate and postgraduate education.

Keywords: Clinical skills, medical education, medical simulation, simulators

How to cite this article:
Al-Elq AH. Simulation-based medical teaching and learning. J Fam Community Med 2010;17:35-40

How to cite this URL:
Al-Elq AH. Simulation-based medical teaching and learning. J Fam Community Med [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Jan 20];17:35-40. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Medical education has undergone significant changes all over the world. One of the reasons for the changes is concern for the patient's safety. "To Err Is Human", a landmark report released by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1999 [1] estimated that medical errors cause injury to approximately 3% of hospital patients and results in a minimum of 44,000 and perhaps as many as 98,000 deaths per year in the United States. Another important finding came from the Harvard Medical Practice Study 1, in which the authors reviewed over 30,000 randomly selected hospital records at New York State in 1984 as part of an interdisciplinary study of medical injury and malpractice litigation. They found that injuries from adverse events occurred in 3.7% of hospital admissions, 27.6% of which were due to negligence and in which 13.6% led to death. [2] Medical errors also contribute to the cost of medical care throughout the world. The annual cost attributable to all adverse drug events and preventable adverse drug events for a 700-bed American teaching hospital was estimated by one study as $5.6 million and $2.8 million repectively. [3] Though it is expected that such medical errors occur in Saudi Arabia, there are no studies on their extent in Saudi hospitals.

Calls for a change in the instructional methods have resulted in innovative medical curricula. The new curricula stress the importance of proficiency in several clinical skills by medical graduates rather than mere acquisition of knowledge. As evidenced by their endorsement by many of the international bodies and medical schools, [4] it is universally accepted that clinical skills constitute an essential learning outcome. The acquisition of appropriate clinical skills is key to health education; however, students sometimes complete their educational programs armed with theoretical knowledge but lack many of the clinical skills vital for their work. A major challenge for medical undergraduates is the application of theoretical knowledge to the management of patients. Some medical schools in the Middle East have changed their curricula and adopted such educational strategies as problem-based learning. Also many medical schools have started to utilize clinical skills laboratories for training. However, simulation-based learning is not yet well established in this region. The objective of this narrative review article is to highlight the importance of simulation as a new teaching method for undergraduate and postgraduate education.

   Materials and Methods Top

This is a narrative review of literature on a medical simulator and the use of simulation in medical education. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed database for English-language publications and reference lists from relevant articles published between 1990 and August 2009 was conducted. The main search terms were medical simulation, medical simulator, medical education, and clinical skills. All articles thought to be relevant to the title and/or abstracts were retrieved. These articles were reviewed if they were considered relevant to the search.

   Clinical Competence Top

Medical training programs should ensure that students have the necessary learning opportunities and assessed by the appropriate methods. Clinical skills competencies including communication skills, history-taking, professional attitudes, awareness of ethical basis of healthcare, physical examination, procedural skills, clinical laboratory skills, diagnostic skills, therapeutic skills, resuscitation skills, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, problem solving, team-work, organization skills, management skills, and information technology skills should be part of the core undergraduate curriculum. [5] Traditionally, the acquisition and ongoing improvement of high level psychomotor skills required by future physician take place in an apprentice-style model of 'See One, Do One, Teach One.' This apprentice-style of learning is no longer considered acceptable because of the increasing concern for the quality of patient care and safety and change in health care systems. The pressure of managed care has shaped the forms and frequency of hospitalization and led to a higher percentage of acutely ill patients and shorter inpatient stays. This has resulted in fewer opportunities for the medical learner to access a wide variety of diseases and physical findings. Relying on exposure to real hospital patients during training years may result in an ad-hoc method of learning clinical skills, as this depends on the availability of cases, and consequently to less than optimal development and performance of clinical skills. There are many reports that indicate concerns for the level of skills medical graduates even in western countries possess. [6],[7]

The acquisition of expertise in clinical medicine requires the learner's engagement in deliberate practice of desired learning outcomes. According to Issenberg et al (2002) [8] "Deliberate practice involves (a) repetitive performance of intended cognitive or psychomotor skills in focused domain, coupled with (b) rigorous skills assessment, that provides learners (c) specific, informative feedback, that results in increasingly (d) better skills performance, in a controlled setting." Concerns about patient safety and fewer available patients for learning, and many other factors have led to the introduction of simulation and the development of simulation centers and clinical skills laboratories in medical education. [9],[10]

   Simulation Top

Aviation and aerospace industries have been using simulation as a teaching tool for many years. Simulators are now widely used in education and training in a variety of high risk professions and disciplines, including the military, commercial airlines, nuclear power plants, business and medicine. [11] Recently, the inclusion of clinical skills training into the curricula of medical students has seen significant growth. There are many examples of curricular reform that include clinical skills training, the use of simulators, and the creation of clinical skills centres. [12] Simulation has been defined as a situation in which a particular set of conditions is created artificially in order to study or experience something that is possible in real life; or a generic term that refers to the artificial representation of a real world process to achieve educational goals via experimental learning. [13] A simulator is defined as a device that enables the operator to reproduce or represent under test conditions phenomena likely to occur in actual performance. On the other hand, simulation based medical education can be defined as any educational activity that utilizes simulative aides to replicate clinical scenarios. Simulation tools serve as an alternative to the real patient. Trainers can make mistakes and learn from them without the fear of distressing the patient. [14] Experiential learning, which is a part of the definition of simulation, is an active process during which the learner constructs knowledge by linking new information and new experience with previous knowledge and understanding. Experiential learning or learning from experience during simulation based training sometimes involves the use of clinical scenarios as the bases of learning. [15],[16] The practice of scenarios can be done individually, but it is mostly carried out by a team from the same or different specialties or professions in a simulated environment made to resemble the intended environment as closely as possible in order to immerse students in an experience closest to real life. [17],[18] The practice of a scenario can be videotaped for immediate feedback to participants during the debriefing sessions.

Debriefing after a scenario is an important component of full-scale simulation. Video recording of the scenario is also used to initiate discussion and to make sure that all learning objectives were covered. Debriefing can focus both around the cognitive process involved in the recognition of the problem and the implementation of the management guidelines and the technical level at which the ability of the learner to apply rules and appropriate responses in a stressful situation is evaluated. [19]

During the full scale scenario-based training, the learner can acquire such important skills as interpersonal communication, teamwork, leadership, decision-making, the ability to prioritize tasks under pressure, and stress management. [13] However, training through simulation should be viewed as an adjuvant and not a replacement for learning with real patients. Simulation is not intended to replace the need for learning in the clinical environment, so it is important to integrate simulation training with the clinical practice during curriculum development.

   Simulator Top

Simulators are classified into different categories. [20],[21] An example of the classification of simulators is shown in [Table 1]. Simulators can be classified according to their resemblance to reality into low-fidelity, medium- fidelity and high-fidelity simulators. [20] Low-fidelity simulators are often static and lack the realism or situational context. They are usually used to teach novices the basics of technical skills. Example of a low-fidelity simulator is the intravenous insertion arm [Figure 1] and Resusci-Anne [Figure 2]. Moderate fidelity simulators give more resemblance of reality with such features as pulse, heart sounds, and breathing sounds but without the ability to talk and they lack chest or eye movement. They can be used for both the introduction and deeper understanding of specific, increasingly complex competencies. An example of a moderate fidelity simulator is the "Harvey" cardiology simulator [Figure 3]. High fidelity simulators combine part or whole body manikins to carry the intervention with computers that drive the manikins to produce physical signs and feed physiological signs to monitors. They are usually designed to resemble the reality. They can talk, breathe, blink, and respond either automatically or manually to physical and pharmacological interventions. Good examples of high-fidelity simulator is the METI Human Patient Simulator (HPS) which is model driven [Figure 4] and the "Noelle" obstetric simulator which is instructor driven. In general, the higher the fidelity, the more expensive it is.
Table 1 : Classification of simulators[20],[21]

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Figure 1 : Intravenous insertion arm

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Figure 2 : Resusci-Anne

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Figure 3 : "Harvey" cardiology simulator

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Figure 4 : METI Human patient simulator (HPS)

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Virtual reality can also be incorporated into the simulators (mostly part-task simulators) to enhance learning. Virtual reality is best described as a concept of advanced human-computer interaction. Virtual reality varies greatly according to its level of sophistication in its level of realism and of the user's interaction with the virtual environment. [22] A common form of virtual reality involves the use of haptic (touch) feedback to produce a feeling of resistance when using instruments in a simulated environment. This technology is frequently used in endoscopic and laparoscopic dexterity training. High-fidelity and virtual reality simulations can bridge the gap between theory and practice by immersing the learner in a realistic, dynamic, complex setting.

Nonetheless, simulation can only imitate but not replicate reality. The recreation of "reality" or "fidelity" is important for the success of simulation and for the participant. Since some simulators can be used to encourage independent or self-directed learning, they should be integrated into the overall curriculum. However, to make learning effective, important conditions are necessary during simulation practice. The intended outcomes should be predefined and the training carried out in a controlled environment. Effective learning requires repetitive practice and feedback during the learning experience. Issenberg et al[22] performed an excellent systematic review and identified ten features of high-fidelity medical simulation that can lead to effective learning. Those ten features are listed in [Table 2].
Table 2 : Features of high fidelity simulation that lead to effective learning[22]

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   Simulation Based Training Top

Simulation can be used to resemble existing curricular material. The simulated scenarios are realistic enough to engage the students emotionally, thus providing a unique learning experience, where the high fidelity simulator "patient" actually talks, breathes, blinks, and moves like a real patient. Simulation can be adapted to accommodate the need of various medical specialties such as anesthesia, emergency medicine and trauma, intensive care medicine, obstetrics, pediatrics, and radiology as well as for the use of other professionals such as nurses, paramedics, and respiratory therapists. [13],[24],[25]

Simulation laboratories are quite costly. A single high-fidelity simulator with its monitoring system and other necessary equipment may cost up to $200 000. In addition, synthetic body fluids, replacement skins, bandages, syringes and other supplies are necessary to simulate the experience of treating real patients in a real hospital. The ability to practise without risk must be weighed against the cost of this new technology. Simulation has many advantages, for it results in highly trained medical graduates who are less likely to make life-threatening or costly medical errors. [21],[23] Some of the advantages of simulation are listed in [Table 3]. Employing medical simulation techniques can help move medical training from the old "See One, Do One, Teach One" method into a "See One, Practice Many, Do One" model of success. [26] Simulation-based teaching has proved to reduce risks to both patients and learners. [27],[28] It has also proved to be effective in both undergraduate and post graduate education as well as faculty development. [29],[30] Simulation can be used in the primary health care setting to improve confidence in performing life-saving skills, [31] clinical skills, [32],[33] communication skills, [34] and the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma. [35],[36] Such simulators as part task trainers, computer-based systems, virtual reality and the haptic system, simulated patients, simulated environment, and integrated simulators have been also used effectively to assess and evaluate clinical skills. [10],[37],[38] The major challenge to medical simulation is the fact that evidence to date is weak in methodology. Most of the published work is descriptive and limited in generalisability. The assumption that such learning is directly transferable to the clinical context is often untested. [39] Only a few studies have shown a direct positive impact in the clinical outcome from the use of simulation for medical training. [40]

In conclusion, the promise of simulation-based medical training offers useful opportunities to reduce risks to patients and learners, improve learners' competence and confidence, increase patient safety, and reduce health care costs in the long run. However, robust research is needed to see if simulation training does actually improve patient outcomes.
Table 3 : Advantages of simulation[21],[23]

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   References Top

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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24 Developing standardized patient-based cases for communication training: lessons learned from training residents to communicate diagnostic uncertainty
Dimitrios Papanagnou,Matthew R. Klein,Xiao Chi Zhang,Kenzie A. Cameron,Amanda Doty,Danielle M. McCarthy,Kristin L. Rising,David H. Salzman
Advances in Simulation. 2021; 6(1)
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25 Systematic review of three-dimensional printing for simulation training of interventional radiology trainees
Chase Tenewitz,Rebecca T. Le,Mauricio Hernandez,Saif Baig,Travis E. Meyer
3D Printing in Medicine. 2021; 7(1)
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26 How COVID-19 kick-started online learning in medical education—The DigiMed study
Fabian Stoehr,Lukas Müller,Adrian Brady,Antoni Trilla,Aline Mähringer-Kunz,Felix Hahn,Christoph Düber,Nicole Becker,Marcus-Alexander Wörns,Julius Chapiro,Jan Bernd Hinrichs,Deniz Akata,Stephan Ellmann,Merel Huisman,David Koff,Sebastian Brinkmann,Fabian Bamberg,Oscar Zimmermann,Nikoleta I. Traikova,Jens U. Marquardt,D.-H. Chang,Fabian Rengier,Timo A. Auer,Tilman Emrich,Felix Muehler,Heinz Schmidberger,Bettina Baeßler,Daniel Pinto dos Santos,Roman Kloeckner,Mohammed Saqr
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27 The influence of low-fidelity simulator training on canine peripheral venous puncture procedure
Dayane Aparecida Francisco da Silva,Aline Angela Fernandes,Ana Evellyn Ventrone,Ariane Dias,Ana Maria Siqueira Silveira,Cecilia Laposy Santarém,Gabrielle Gomes dos Santos Ribeiro,Rosa Maria Barilli Nogueira
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28 Red reflex technique training simulator in newborns
Mauricio Leonardi da Silva Dias,Danilo Jun Kadosaki,Igor Santos de Souza,Joacy Pedro Franco David,Ivete Furtado Ribeiro Caldas,Rafael Oliveira Chaves
Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica. 2021; 45(1)
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29 Utility of medical simulation in neurovascular critical care education
Sandra Mass-Ramírez,Hernán Vergara-Burgos,Carmen Sierra-Ochoa,Ivan David Lozada-Martinez,Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar,Tariq Janjua,Md Moshiur Rahman,Sabrina Rahman,Yelson Alejandro Picón-Jaimes
Journal of Neurocritical Care. 2021; 14(1): 8
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30 Simulated Patient Environment: A Training Tool for Healthcare Professionals in COVID-19 Era
Mangayarkarasi V Babu,Mohan Kumar Arumugam,Dhrubajyoti J Debnath
Advances in Medical Education and Practice. 2021; Volume 12: 579
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31 Simulation-Based Peer-Assisted Learning: Perceptions of Health Science Students
Muna Aljahany,Haifaa Malaekah,Hayat Alzahrani,Fatimah Alhamadah,Wireen Leila Dator
Advances in Medical Education and Practice. 2021; Volume 12: 731
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33 Digital Simulation Improves, Maintains, and Helps Transfer Health-Care Providersæ Neonatal Resuscitation Knowledge
Simran K. Ghoman,Maria Cutumisu,Georg M. Schmölzer
Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2021; 8
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T Prokopová,K Vrbica,J Hudec,J Dvorácek,R Gál,J Maláska
Anesteziologie a intenzivní medicína. 2021; 32(2): 74
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35 Simulator-based videolaryngoscopy training for capacity building in intubation during COVID-19 pandemic: An institutional experience from North India
Sanjay Agrawal,Sharmistha Pathak,BharatBhushan Bhardwaj,Poonam Arora,Ankita Kabi,Rajesh Kathrotia,Shalinee Rao
Airway. 2021; 4(2): 90
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36 Teaching asthma first aid to pharmacy students: A comparative study between an online course and simulation by role-play
Dalia Bajis,Betty Chaar,Iman Basheti,Rebekah Moles
Pharmacy Education. 2021; : 92
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37 Improving the Quality of Medical Education: Students’ Achievements and Perceptions on Simulation Based Learning
Irma Manjavidze,Dali Chitaishvili,Pirdara Nozadze
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38 Improving the Quality of Medical Education: Students’ Achievements and Perceptions on Simulation Based Learning
Dali Chitaishvili,Irma Manjavidze,Pirdara Nozadze
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39 Simulation: Will it be a new patient in the COVID era?
KaminderBir Kaur,Deepak Dwivedi,Vishal Mangal
Journal of Marine Medical Society. 2020; 0(0): 0
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40 The Era of Immersive Health Technology
Robbie Bremner, Austin Gibbs, Andrew R. J. Mitchell
EMJ Innovations. 2020; : 40
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41 Diseño de un simulador de paciente para auscultación cardiaca
Sergio Alejandro Viaña-Fragoso,Andrés Rosario-Rojas,Luis Jiménez-Ángeles
Revista Latinoamericana de Simulación Clínica. 2020; 2(3): 146
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42 Validation of an Internally Developed Knee Model Designed to Facilitate Instruction in Practice of Arthrocentesis of the Knee
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2020; 103(6): 572
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43 Technology and the Trainee: Balancing the Needs of the Patient and the Needs of the System
Rob Graham
Neonatology Today. 2020; 15(9): 32
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44 Anesthesia Teaching for Undergraduates; Bringing the Operating Theatre to the Simulation Lab: A Pilot Study
Thiruselvi Subramaniam,Tan Ann Jee
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45 The use of simulation as a teaching modality for paramedic education: a scoping review
Bethany Wheeler,Enrico Dippenaar
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Bulletin of Problems Biology and Medicine. 2020; 2(1): 198
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47 Antibiótico e Arte: uma Proposta Inovadora em Educação Médica
Lara Gurgel Fernandes Távora,Laila Maria Teixeira Amorim,Ranna Jorge de Araújo,Monya Garcia Baracho,Mariana Pitombeira Libório
Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica. 2020; 44(1)
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48 Learning impact of a virtual brain electrical activity simulator among neurophysiology students: Mixed method intervention study (Preprint)
Marko Henrik Björn,Jonne MM Laurila,Werner Ravyse,Jari Kukkonen,Sanna Leivo,Kati Mäkitalo,Tuula Keinonen
JMIR Serious Games. 2020;
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49 Blood, Sweat and Tears: Tutorial for Developing 360-Degree Video Virtual Reality Trauma Training Experiences (Preprint)
Devika Patel,Jessica Hawkins,Lara Zena Chehab,Patrick Martin-Tuite,Joshua Feler,Amy Tan,Benjamin Alpers,Sophia Pink,Jerome Wang,Jonathan Freise,Phillip Kim,Christopher Peabody,John Bowditch,Eric R Williams,Amanda Sammann
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50 Simulation-based low-dose, high-frequency plus mobile mentoring versus traditional group-based trainings among health workers on day of birth care in Nigeria; a cluster randomized controlled trial
Emmanuel Ugwa,Mark Kabue,Emmanuel Otolorin,Gayane Yenokyan,Adetiloye Oniyire,Bright Orji,Ugo Okoli,Joseph Enne,Gabriel Alobo,Gladys Olisaekee,Adebayo Oluwatobi,Chioma Oduenyi,Adekunle Aledare,Boniface Onwe,Gbenga Ishola
BMC Health Services Research. 2020; 20(1)
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51 Simulation via instant messaging-Birmingham advance (SIMBA) model helped improve clinicians’ confidence to manage cases in diabetes and endocrinology
Eka Melson,Meri Davitadze,Manal Aftab,Cai Ying Ng,Emma Ooi,Parisha Blaggan,Wentin Chen,Thia Hanania,Lucretia Thomas,Dengyi Zhou,Joht Singh Chandan,Latha Senthil,Wiebke Arlt,Sailesh Sankar,John Ayuk,Muhammad Ali Karamat,Punith Kempegowda
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52 Simulator-based ultrasound training for identification of endotracheal tube placement in a neonatal intensive care unit using point of care ultrasound
Khushboo Qaim Ali,Sajid Bashir Soofi,Ali Shabbir Hussain,Uzair Ansari,Shaun Morris,Mark Oliver Tessaro,Shabina Ariff,Hasan Merali
BMC Medical Education. 2020; 20(1)
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Patrick Gallagher, Ryan Smith, Gillian Sheppard
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54 Teaching cardiac excitation-contraction coupling using a mathematical computer simulation model of human ventricular myocytes
Young Keul Jeon,Jae Boum Youm,Kotdaji Ha,JooHan Woo,Hae Young Yoo,Chae Hun Leem,Seung Hee Lee,Sung Joon Kim
Advances in Physiology Education. 2020; 44(3): 323
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Madelaine Gimzewska, K Hunter, S Al Azzawi, A Boreham
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56 High-Fidelity Patient Simulation Increases Saudi Dietetics Students' Self-efficacy in Applying the Nutrition Care Process
Areej A. Alkhaldy,Rana H. Mosli
Topics in Clinical Nutrition. 2020; 35(2): 93
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57 Simulation-based teaching and models for caesarean sections: a systematic review to evaluate the tools for the ‘See One, Practice Many, Do One’ slogan
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Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2020; 32(5): 305
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58 Design and Implementation of the Health Professions Simulation Assessment, a Tool to Assess Students' Perceptions of Simulation Experiences
Kristin Curry Greenwood,Jennifer Kirwin,Zhiguang Huo
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59 Learning to lead: A medical student perspective
Bethan Dewer,Jessica Hughes
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60 Developing Cricothyroidotomy Skills Using a Biomaterial-Covered Model
Cigdem Ozkaya Senuren,Serpil Yaylaci,Kamil Kayayurt,Hasan Aldinc,Cem Gun,Perihan Simsek,Ozgur Tatli,Suha Turkmen
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2020;
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61 Integrating high fidelity patient simulation into a skills-based doctor of pharmacy curriculum: A literature review with focus on the bedrock pilot course
Liza Barbarello Andrews,Maria Cardinale,Deepali Dixit
Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning. 2020;
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62 Simulation of scattered radiation during intraoperative imaging in a virtual reality learning environment
Matthias Süncksen,Oliver Johannes Bott,Klaus Dresing,Michael Teistler
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63 Challenges to Medical Education on Surgical Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Jonathan Schaffir,Katherine Strafford,Brett Worly,Amber Traugott
Medical Science Educator. 2020;
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64 The Feasibility of Virtual Reality and Student-Led Simulation Training as Methods of Lumbar Puncture Instruction
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65 The Effect of Teaching Nontechnical Skills in Advanced Life Support: A Systematic Review
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66 Competency Based Medical Education—Towards the Development of a Standardized Pediatric Radiology Testing Module
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67 See One, Sim Many, Do One, Teach One: Opportunities to Improve Resident Skills and Standardize Competencies in Radiology
Aparna Joshi,David Adam Bloom
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68 Simulation-Based Education for Physicians to Increase Oral Anticoagulants in Hospitalized Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
Carlotta Franchi,Stefania Antoniazzi,Ilaria Ardoino,Marco Proietti,Maura Marcucci,Paola Santalucia,Valter Monzani,Pier Mannuccio Mannucci,Alessandro Nobili
The American Journal of Medicine. 2019;
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69 Developing and Evaluating a Simulator for Complex IVC Filter Retrieval
Nam S. Hoang,Benjamin H. Ge,William T. Kuo
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70 Simulation In Surgical Training: Prospective Cohort Study Of Access, Attitudes And Experiences Of Surgical Trainees In The Uk And Ireland
R. Nicholas,G. Humm,K. MacLeod,S. Bathla,A. Horgan,D.M. Nally,J. Glasbey,J.M. Clements,C. Fleming,H.M. Mohan
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71 Low-Fidelity, In-Situ Pediatric Resuscitation Simulation Improves RN Competence and Self-Efficacy
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72 Perceived Barriers to the Development of Technical Skill Proficiency in Surgical Clerkship
Jacqueline A. Luhoway,Joanna F. Ryan,Alexandra C. Istl,Jacob Davidson,Nicole Christakis,Andreana Bütter,Tina Mele
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73 The Effect of Simulation-Based Education on Correctional Health Teamwork and Communication
Desiree A. Díaz,Deborah Shelton,Mindi Anderson,Gregory E. Gibert
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74 Emerging Role of Drills and Simulations in Patient Safety
Jean-Ju Sheen,Dena Goffman
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 2019; 46(2): 305
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75 Proficiency development for graduating medical students, using skills-level–appropriate mastery learning versus traditional learning for chest tube placement: Assessing anxiety, confidence, and performance
Amy E. Liepert,Andrew J. Velic,Brooks Rademacher,Allison A. Blumenfeld,Elizabeth Bingman,Ann P. O’Rourke,Sarah Sullivan
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76 Deaf ACCESS: Adapting Consent Through Community Engagement and State-of-the-Art Simulation
Melissa L Anderson,Timothy Riker,Stephanie Hakulin,Jonah Meehan,Kurt Gagne,Todd Higgins,Elizabeth Stout,Emma Pici-D’Ottavio,Kelsey Cappetta,Kelly S Wolf Craig
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77 Impact of a faculty development course on relationship-centered communication skills
Agnes Barden,Nicole Giammarinaro,Alice Fornari,Jane E. Cerise
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78 Training Cesarean Section
Diana B. Zetner,Iben Petersen,Lars Konge,Ebbe Thinggaard
Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. 2019; 14(4): 264
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79 Effects of high-fidelity simulation based on life-threatening clinical condition scenarios on learning outcomes of undergraduate and postgraduate nursing students: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Carmen La Cerra,Angelo Dante,Valeria Caponnetto,Ilaria Franconi,Elona Gaxhja,Cristina Petrucci,Celeste M Alfes,Loreto Lancia
BMJ Open. 2019; 9(2): e025306
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80 State of the science: the doll is dead: simulation in palliative care education
Lowri Evans,Mark Taubert
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. 2019; 9(2): 117
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81 Use of high-fidelity simulated cases to improve third-year medical students’ ability to manage an acutely unwell patient
Pratik Solanki
BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning. 2019; 5(3): 176
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82 Guidelines for designing a realistic peripheral venous catheter insertion simulator: A literature review
Kevin Torossian,Stéphane Benayoun,Mélanie Ottenio,Anne-Catherine Brulez
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine. 2019; 233(10): 963
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83 Various 3D printed materials mimic bone ultrasonographically: 3D printed models of the equine cervical articular process joints as a simulator for ultrasound guided intra-articular injections
Alexandra Beaulieu,Alex zur Linden,John Phillips,Luis G. Arroyo,Judith Koenig,Gabrielle Monteith,Antonio Riveiro Rodríguez
PLOS ONE. 2019; 14(8): e0220332
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O. O. Khaniukov,Ye. D. Yehudina,L. V. Sapozhnychenko,O. S. Kalashnykova,O. I. Kravchenko
Bulletin of Problems Biology and Medicine. 2019; 1(2): 241
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85 Current Trends and Opportunities for Competency Assessment in Pharmacy Education–A Literature Review
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86 Assessing Knowledge and Compliance of Patient Identification Methods in a Specialized Hospital in Saudi Arabia
Fadwa Abu Mostafa,Amal Saadallah,Hadi El Barazi,Hanan Alghammas
Global Journal on Quality and Safety in Healthcare. 2019; 2(3): 53
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87 Simulation: Is it the Future of Training in Critical Care Medicine?
Atul P Kulkarni
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 2019; 23(11): 495
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88 A Simulated Approach to Fostering Competency in End-of-Life Care Among Pharmacy Students
Eric F. Egelund,Jane Gannon,Carol Motycka,W. Thomas Smith,Dale F. Kraemer,Kathleen H. Solomon
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89 Virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training: Current evidence and future directions
Tahrin Mahmood,Michael Anthony Scaffidi,Rishad Khan,Samir Chandra Grover
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90 Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: Use of Simulated Clinical Experiences in Medical Education
Adriana M. Carpenter,Maureen A. Hirthler,Cathy J. King
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91 Virtual Reality and Simulation for Progressive Treatments in Urology
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92 Simulation-Based medical teaching and learning in human anatomy
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93 Simulation Experiences in Canadian Physiotherapy Programmes: A Description of Current Practices
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94 A comparative study on the frequency of simulation-based training and assessment of non-technical skills in the Norwegian ground ambulance services and helicopter emergency medical services
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BMC Health Services Research. 2018; 18(1)
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95 Intrauterine contraceptive device insertion simulation training in primary care
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96 Development and Utilization of 3D Printed Material for Thoracotomy Simulation
Evan Yates,Roger Chirurgi,Frosso Adamakos,Rania Habal,Rajnish Jaiswal,Hossein Kalantari,Getaw Worku Hassen
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97 Medical emergencies in dental practice - management requirements and international practitioner proficiency. A scoping review
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98 High-Fidelity Realistic Acute Medical Simulation and SBAR Training at a Tertiary Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi
John David Chetwood,Priya Garg,Kieran Burton
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99 Short duration clinically-based interprofessional shadowing and patient review activities may have a role in preparing health professional students to practice collaboratively: a systematic literature review
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100 Factors affecting effective ventilation during newborn resuscitation: a qualitative study among midwives in rural Tanzania
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101 Simulation-based first aid training of students of health sciences
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102 Experience of lecturers with simulation training in midwifery education in Slovakia
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103 Best practices for teaching pharmacology to undergraduate nursing students: A systematic review of the literature
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104 Assessing Competence in Emergency Radiology Using an Online Simulator
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105 The future of population medicine: Investigating the role of advanced practice providers and simulation education in special patient populations
Bridget Niebruegge,James M. Holbrook,Christa Vernon,Connor Grotton,Andrea Maric
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106 Managing the patient identification crisis in healthcare and laboratory medicine
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107 Utility of Low Fidelity Manikins for Learning High Quality Chest Compressions
Meenakshi Girish,Alka Rawekar,Sujo Jose,Umesh Chaudhari,Girish Nanoti
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2017;
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108 Bridging healthcare education and technology solution development through experiential innovation
Noel Carroll,Ita Richardson,Mairead Maloney,Pauline O’Reilly
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Jonathan Chou,Tova Kosowsky,Abhishek R. Payal,Luis A. Gonzalez Gonzalez,Mary K. Daly
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110 Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of an intervention incorporating precision teaching to train procedural skills among final cycle medical students
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111 Video-based feedback as a method for training rural healthcare workers to manage medical emergencies: a pilot study
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112 Modelo artesanal para treinamento de acesso vascular periférico
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113 An evaluation of the emergency care training workshops in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Mergan Naidoo
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114 Using High-Fidelity Simulators to Teach Acute Care Skills
Paul R. Geisler,Erin Michele Jordan
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115 Acquisition of Competencies by Medical Students in Neurological Emergency Simulation Environments Using High Fidelity Patient Simulators
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116 Where Are the Sick Kids?
Terrance McGovern,Katrina D’Amore
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117 Simulation in Radiology Education:
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118 Medical studentsæ perceptions regarding the importance of nutritional knowledge and their confidence in providing competent nutrition practice
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119 Simulation-Based Medical Education in Pediatrics
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120 Teaching Corner: “First Do No Harm”: Teaching Global Health Ethics to Medical Trainees Through Experiential Learning
Tea Logar,Phuoc Le,James D. Harrison,Marcia Glass
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121 Simulation and the student pathway to critical care
Melanie Rushton
British Journal of Cardiac Nursing. 2015; 10(2): 93
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122 How to make an aortic root replacement simulator at home
Kasra Shaikhrezai,Maziar Khorsandi,Edward T Brackenbury,Sai Prasad,Vipin Zamvar,John Butler,Geoffrey Berg
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123 Simulation to Standardize Patient Care and Maintain Procedural Competency
Meggan Butler-O’Hara,Margaret Marasco,Rita Dadiz
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Varsha Vyas,Amit Nagpal,Shirish Patil,Surekha Patil,Sanjay Oak,Mohite S N,Nitin Kumar Sharma,Freston Marc Sirur
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