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 Table of Contents 
BRIEF REPORT
Year : 1996  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 77-80  

Did the national campaign for poliomyelitis vaccination achieve its objectives? a pilot survey in Al-Khobar area


1 Department of Neurology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, AIKhobar, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of FAMCO, King Fahd Hospital of the University, AIKhobar, Saudi Arabia
3 Assistant Deputy Minister, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication31-Jul-2012

Correspondence Address:
Abdulsalam AI-Sulaiman
Associate Professor & Chairman, Department of Neurology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, P.O. Box 40180, Al-Khobar 31952
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 23008559

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   Abstract 

Objectives : To verify whether the first national campaign for poliomyelitis vaccination achieved its objectives.
Setting : Al-Khobar area in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Materials & Methods : Randomized samples have been obtained using the Bowleg's proportional allocation scheme. At the first stage, housing blocks of 8­10 houses were selected using random sampling procedure. At a second stage, 2 houses from each block were selected in a 1 or 4 order. Both Saudi and non­Saudi nationals living in these households were screened using pretested questionnaire administered at a face-to-face by trained interviewers. The questionnaire covered areas that included number of children vaccinated, reasons for non vaccination, whether or not the vaccinated child has received certificate of vaccination as well as placement of stickers on the door of the vaccinated households.
Result : A total of 107 households were surveyed in Al-Khobar. The total populations surveyed was 527 people including 213 adults and 314 children (152 of the children were aged 5 years or less). In all the households surveyed, all eligible children age 5 years or less were vaccinated. All of the vaccinated children obtained a vaccination certificate.
Conclusion : The overall percentage coverage in Al-Khobar was 100%. This denotes the success of the campaign. A nationwide survey is suggested to corroborate these findings.

Keywords: Poliomyelitis, Vaccination, Saudi Arabia.


How to cite this article:
AI-Sulaiman A, Al-Mazrou YY, AI-Bar A. Did the national campaign for poliomyelitis vaccination achieve its objectives? a pilot survey in Al-Khobar area. J Fam Community Med 1996;3:77-80

How to cite this URL:
AI-Sulaiman A, Al-Mazrou YY, AI-Bar A. Did the national campaign for poliomyelitis vaccination achieve its objectives? a pilot survey in Al-Khobar area. J Fam Community Med [serial online] 1996 [cited 2021 May 15];3:77-80. Available from: https://www.jfcmonline.com/text.asp?1996/3/2/77/98564


   Introduction Top


Poliomyelitis infection has become increasingly under control because of early immunization, surveillance, and case identification. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5] The worldwide effort to eradicate poliomyelitis by the WHO has received remarkable echoes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A nationwide polio­myelitis vaccination programme has been implemented. This programme started on the 11 th to 13 th Jumada II, 1417H (4 th to 6 th November 1995) and 3 rd to 5 th Rajab 1416H (25 th to 27 th November 1995). The programme involved trained field health workers administering vaccination on door-­to-door basis to all children equal to or less than 5 years of age. The aim of the campaign was to get a minimum of 80% of the targeted population (children < 5 years of age) immunized. This study was done to verify whether the national immunization team has achieved its objective or not by a small checking survey which was conducted over 2 days as a door-to-door survey immediately after the immunization days.


   Material and Methods Top


A randomly selected group of household samples were chosen from Al-Khobar. Stratified two-stage sampling was done in the population of Al-Khobar area. The area had been divided into 2 homogenous sectors. About 7% sample was selected. The total sample size was divided into

different sectors using Bowleg's proportional allocation scheme. At the first stage, housing blocks were selected using simple random sampling procedures as the blocks are similar in nature. At second stage, two houses from each block were selected in 1 or 4 order (each block having 8 to 10 houses). All Saudi and Non-Saudi nationals living in these houses were screened using a pre-tested questionnaire administered in a face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. The questionnaire covered areas of placement of stickers on immunized households, the accuracy of information displayed in these stickers, the number of children vaccinated and not vaccinated, the reason for non-vaccination and whether or not the immunized children received certificates. The cooperation of the authorities in the various government institutes was secured through ample discussions pertaining to the objectives of the survey and the mechanics of screening of the targeted households. Furthermore, obtaining family/guardian consent was always a priority. Islamic ethics, local customs and individual wishes were closely observed.


   Results Top


A total of 107 households were surveyed in Al-Khobar. The total population surveyed was 527 people including 213 adults and 314 children, 152 (48.4%) of the children were aged five years or less. One household occupied by a senior citizen and another household were not available initially. Upon re-visit by screening team, they were informed that the occupiers had gone abroad. Eighty percent of all households had children over 5 years of age. In all the households surveyed, all children of eligible age, ie., 5 years or less were vaccinated (N=152). None of the children aged 5 years or less were non­vaccinated. Only 2 households received the vaccination at a primary care health center but all others had been vaccinated by the national immunization programme teams. All of the immunized children obtained vaccination certificates. In addition, 100% of households surveyed had stickers placed on the outside door by the national immunization programme teams, 95% of the stickers were placed out of the reach of children. None of the surveyed households had follow-up visits by the national immunization programme teams.


   Discussion Top


Poliomyelitis infection has been shown to be amenable to eradication. Such a goal was obtained in the Americas through case surveillance, recognition and immunization. [6],[7],[8] The incidence of poliomyelitis infections in other parts of the world is steadily dropping. [9],[10],[11],[12],[13] To achieve similar objectives a national immunization programme was undertaken in Saudi Arabia. This was done on a door-to-door basis. Following the national immuni­zation programme days, quality assurance questionnaires were issued by trained professionals. The results showed that 100% of all targeted population received immunization. Immunized individuals were issued immunization certificates. This Pilot study also shows that 101 (95%) of household had stickers placed outside the door identifying them as having been visited by the national immunization programme teams.

Although a lower percentage was required (80%) to achieve the national immunization programme objectives, it seems that the immunization programme in Al-Khobar had achieved a higher percent­age coverage (100%). Through re-infection by the live attenuated oral polio vaccine and auto-immunization, the number of immune individuals to polio virus will exponentially rise. This may ultimately help the goal of eradicating polio virus from the Kingdom.

 
   References Top

1.World Health Organization: Global poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000-plan of action. Geneva; World. Health Organization 1992.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.World Health Organization: Report of the first meeting of the global commission for certification of the eradication of poliomyelitis. Geneva; World Health Organization 1995.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Hull HF, Ward NA, Hull BP, Milstine JB, de Quadros CA. Paralytic Poliomyelitis: Seasoned strategies, disappearing disease. Lancet 1994; 343:1331-1337.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Cochi FL, Hull HF, Ward NA. To conquer poliomyelitis forever. Lancet 1995; 345:1589-1590.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Patriarca PA, Foege WH, Swatz TA. Progress in polio eradication. Lancet 1993; 342:1461-1464.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Centers for diseases control and prevention. Certification of poliomyeli­tis eradication -The Americas 1994. MMWR 1994 -1 13:720-722.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Strebel PM, Sutter RW, Cochi SL, Biellik RJ, Brink EW, Kew OM, et al. Epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States one decade after the last reported case of indigenous wild virus­associated disease. Clin Infect Dis 1992; 14:568-79.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Pan American Health Organization. Strategies for the certification of the eradication of wild polio virus transmission in the Americas. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 1993; 27:287-96.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Anonymous. Progress toward global poliomyelitis eradication 1985-1994. MMWR 1995; 44:273-281.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Anonymous. Expanded programme on immunization. Progress towards poliomyelitis. Weekly Epidemiological Record 1995; 70:97-101.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Strebel PM, Sutter RW, Coche SL, Biellik RJ, Brink EW, Dw OM, et al. Poliomyelitis case confirmation: characteristics for use by national eradication programmes. Bull WHO 1992; 70:79-80.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Cochi SL, Orenstein WA. Commentary: China's giant step toward the global eradication of poliomyelitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995; 14:315-316.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Yang B, Zhang J, Otten MW Jr, Kusumoto K, Jiang T, Zhang R, et al. Eradication of poliomyelitis progress in the People's Republic of China. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995; 14:308-14.  Back to cited text no. 13
    




 

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