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   2019| January-April  | Volume 26 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 4, 2019

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The association between waiting time and patient satisfaction in outpatient clinics: Findings from a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia
Rasmah S Al-Harajin, Sara A Al-Subaie, Ahmed G Elzubair
January-April 2019, 26(1):17-22
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_14_18  PMID:30697100
BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is an important indicator for assessing the quality of health care because it affects the timely, efficient, and patient-centered delivery of quality health care, and patient satisfaction is associated with the clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine the relationship between waiting time and patient satisfaction in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at family medicine and other specialized clinics. Data were collected through a structured, self-administered questionnaire distributed to patients seen at the outpatient clinics. Variables collected were sociodemographic information and patient satisfaction scores to evaluate the association between waiting time and satisfaction. RESULTS: A total of 406 patients participated in the study. Half of the patients reported being satisfied with the waiting time, while the remaining were dissatisfied (mean satisfaction score 38.4 ± 6.63). Family medicine clinic scored better in waiting time than other specialized clinics; between arrival and registration (P < 0.01), between registration and consultation (P < 0.01), consultation time (P < 0.01), and overall waiting time (P < 0.01). Patients treated at the family medicine clinic were more likely to be satisfied than those seen in other specialized clinics (61.2% vs. 40%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Overall satisfaction was lower than shown in previous literature. Gender and clinic type were significantly associated with satisfaction score; those who attended the family medicine clinics were more satisfied than those attending other specialized clinics. Findings may be used to inform researchers, clinicians, and policy-makers' decisions on quality improvement programs.
  4,153 533 4
Effect of Zamzam water on blood methemoglobin level in young rats
Ahmed Badar, Abdullah O Bamosa, Mohammed Salahuddin, Abdullah Al Meheithif
January-April 2019, 26(1):30-35
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_21_18  PMID:30697102
BACKGROUND: Methemoglobin (MetHb) level in blood indicates exposure to nitrogenous compounds. Acquired methemoglobinemia as a result of exposure to nitrates in drinking water is primarily an issue for infants. The amount of nitrates in Zamzam water is said to be on the high side. This study was designed to determine the effect of prolonged use of Zamzam water on MetHb in rat pups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rat pups (n = 52, 3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. All of them were given normal laboratory chow. The groups differed only in the exclusive source of water, that is ordinary bottled water, standardized mineral water, old Zamzam water (stored since 2008) or fresh Zamzam water. MetHb level was checked (using Avoximeter 4000) at the baseline, and then every week for 4 weeks from blood obtained from retro-orbital sinus. Other parameters tested were total haemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin. ANOVA was used to compare the means between the groups. RESULTS: None of the rats in any of the four groups showed any sign of methemoglobinemia or toxicity. Both groups on Zamzam water showed higher increments in their total hemoglobin by the end of the study compared to their baseline (22%) than the ordinary water (9%) and the mineral water (5%) groups. None of the groups showed any significant difference in MetHb levels on intergroup comparison at any of the weekly readings and at the end of the study. CONCLUSION: Prolonged use of Zamzam water did not induce any significant difference in MetHb concentration in rat pups, which might indicate that it is safe for infants.
  4,241 311 1
A profile of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and dietary habits of Saudi college female students
Hana A Alzamil, Manan A Alhakbany, Nora A Alfadda, Sarah M Almusallam, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa
January-April 2019, 26(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_58_18  PMID:30697098
BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported valid comprehensive data on lifestyle habits of Saudi college females. In addition, studies on sedentary behaviors (SBs) and the duration of sleep of Saudi college students are rare. Saudi females appear to be less physically active and therefore, at a higher risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate lifestyle patterns of Saudi college females, including physical activity (PA), SBs, duration of sleep, and dietary habits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among females attending health science colleges of King Saud University, using multistage stratified cluster sample (n = 456). Weight, height, PA, SB, sleep, and dietary habits were all assessed using a previously validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Nearly half of the college females were physically inactive. Females exercised mostly at home or alone at no specific time of day. Their activity was for health reasons (43.4%) for weight loss (28.7%); lack of time (71.2%) was the primary reason for inactivity. The majority (>85%) of females spent more time in sedentary activity (>3 h/day) while 95% of females had insufficient sleep (<8 h/night). Over 40% of the participants consumed breakfast or vegetables 5 days or more per week, whereas the corresponding proportions for fruit and milk/dairy products intake were 19.4% and 58.4%, respectively. The proportions of college females who consumed less healthy foods for 3+ days/week were fairly variable, ranging from 21.1% for French fries to 60.4% for chocolates/candy. The predictors of total PA time were increased the duration of sleep and reduced intake of French fries/potato chips. CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy lifestyle habit appears prevalent among Saudi college females. Efforts toward promoting PA, decreasing SB, and insufficient sleep and improving dietary habits in Saudi females are needed to reduce future risks of NCDs.
  2,739 588 4
Immune's-boosting agent: Immunomodulation potentials of propolis
Mohammed Al-Hariri
January-April 2019, 26(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_46_18  PMID:30697106
With a concomitant increase in immune-related diseases such as allergic diseases, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease and other immune-related responses such as immunodeficiency, various infectious, diseases, vaccines, and malignancies, it has become very important to have a well-balanced and properly functioning immune system for the maintenance of human health. Recent scientific research has strongly suggested propolis as one of the most promising immunomodulation agents. This review describes recent findings with respect to propolis and its ingredients that show potential in this respect and evaluate their potential mechanisms. The author believes that propolis or/and its ingredients alone and in combination could be promising in manipulating the immune response and inducing immunomodulation. Further exploratory studies are needed to support large clinical trials toward further development of propolis.
  2,224 378 2
Determinants of energy drinks consumption among the students of a Saudi University
Mahmoud H Alabbad, Mohammed Z AlMussalam, Ahmed M AlMusalmi, Mohammad M Alealiwi, Ali I Alresasy, Haidar N Alyaseen, Ahmed Badar
January-April 2019, 26(1):36-44
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_42_18  PMID:30697103
BACKGROUND: Energy drinks contain stimulants mainly caffeine. The use of these drinks by university students is on the rise despite concerns about their safety. This study identified the determinants of the consumption of energy drinks in a cohort of Saudi university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Saudi Arabia. The students who volunteered to participate (n = 1255) were asked to complete a pretested questionnaire soliciting information on gender, marital status, class and college of study, pattern of energy drinks use, reasons for use, any benefits as well as any untoward effects experienced. Data was analysed using IBM-SPSS (version 21) to determine frequencies and compare various categories of the energy drink users. Logistic regression analysis were performed to identify determinants of energy drinks consumption. RESULTS: Out of 1255 participants, 245 reported using energy drinks. Out of a total 1255 students, 903 (72%) were from medical and 352 (28%) from nonmedical colleges of the university. There were 890 junior and 365 senior students. The female participants were significantly more among both senior and junior medical students. The age of the participants (mean ± SD) was 20.2 ± 1.9 years. The frequency of energy drinks users was higher in the male nonmedical students (both senior and junior) compared to the medical students. The most significant determinants identified were male gender (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] =3.34, 6.12), and being single (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.98, 4.24). In addition, being in non-medical field of study (OR = 1.3, 95% CI=0.61-2.13) was also found to have a reasonable association with energy drink consumption. CONCLUSION: We report male gender, unmarried status, and studying in nonmedical colleges of the university as the main determinants of the consumption of energy drinks by university students. Scrutiny of the patterns and reasons for the consumption of energy drinks might help in developing educational interventions to ensure the appropriate use of energy drinks by young adults.
  1,803 240 1
Consistency of child self-reports with parent proxy reports on the quality of life of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Riyadh, 2016
Dina M Al-Habib, Fatima A Alhaidar, Ibrahem M Alzayed, Randa M Youssef
January-April 2019, 26(1):9-16
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_19_18  PMID:30697099
BACKGROUND: The quality of life (QoL) of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been addressed in Saudi Arabia despite the considerable attention it has on account of its prevalence, duration of illness, and sociopsychological effects. The aim of this study was to report on the QoL of children with ADHD and test the concord between children's and parents' reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the generic PedsQL™ (version 4.0) from both children's and parents' perspectives, a cross-sectional study of 112 children was conducted on children aged 5–18 years with an established diagnosis of ADHD attending child psychiatry clinics of three referral hospitals in Riyadh between December 2015 and May 2016. RESULTS: A total of 112 children with an established diagnosis of ADHD were recruited from the Child Psychiatry Clinic of Al Amal Mental Health Complex (41.1%), Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), (33%), and King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), (25.9%). The majority were boys (74.1%) and Saudi nationals (93.8%). The mean age of children with ADHD was 10.45 ± 3.06 years (Range 5 - 18 years). One-fourth of the mothers of children with ADHD had completed high school and 41.1% had a diploma, university, or postgraduate degree. One-third of the fathers of these children had completed high school (34%) and 38.4% had a diploma, university, or postgraduate degree. The intra-class correlation coefficients between the scores of children and parents were good for physical functioning, fair for social functioning, but moderate for school, emotional, and psychosocial functioning. Children rated themselves significantly better than their parents for emotional, social, school, and psychosocial functioning. The standardized response means indicated a small difference for social functioning and medium differences for the other three domains. The only significant discrepancy was observed in social functioning in relation to the child's age. CONCLUSION: Parents mirrored adequately the observable physical component of the QoL of their children. The QoL report of children with ADHD with respect to communications and intellectual abilities should be taken into account whenever possible and their parents' report also should be sought to provide a more comprehensive view of the child's status.
  1,618 230 -
Medical students' perception of their educational environment at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Soban Q Khan, Mohammad Al-Shahrani, Abdul Khabeer, Faraz A Farooqi, Abdullah Alshamrani, Abdulrahman M Alabduljabbar, Ahmed S Bahamdan, Mohammad A Alqathani
January-April 2019, 26(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_12_18  PMID:30697104
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate students' perception of the educational climate in a medical school in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The difference in the perception of preclinical year students and clinical year students was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2nd to 6th year students at the medical college of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. “Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure” (DREEM) was used to evaluate the educational environment. RESULTS: Out of 518, 238 students participated in the study; participation rate of 45.9%. The average DREEM score was 112.38 with a SD of 22.4. Students' perception of atmosphere got the highest score (27.1 ± 6.7) of the five DREEM subscales. The 3rd year had the highest DREEM score compared to students of other levels, while the DREEM score of preclinical students was significantly higher than that of the clinical year students. CONCLUSION: Perception of medical students about the educational climate was more positive than negative. Although the DREEM score and its subdomains showed a positive educational environment, students still mentioned some problematic areas that need to be addressed. Findings of this study could encourage other medical colleges in the KSA to focus on weak areas and address the issues raised by students, especially clinical year students.
  1,475 166 -
The impact of using the term “Diabetic Ear” for the patients with skull base osteomyelitis
Abdulaziz S AlEnazi, Salma S Al Sharhan, Laila M Telmesani, Nasser A Aljazan, Bander M Al Qahtani, Mohamed A Lotfy
January-April 2019, 26(1):23-29
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_187_17  PMID:30697101
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and ear disease are some of the most widespread health concerns. The focus here is on the impact of using the term “Diabetic Ear” for patients with skull base osteomyelitis (SBM) in the context of malignant otitis externa (MOE). The aim of this study was to discover the awareness of general practitioners (GPs), residents, specialists, and consultants at Primary Health Care Centers about necrotizing otitis externa (NOE), also known previously as malignant external otitis (MOE), assess their deficiencies and provide solutions; also assist them for the early detection and possible prevention of diabetes- related ear diseases and their complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of physicians (residents, specialists, and consultants) working at the Primary Health Care Centers in Al-Khobar and Dammam cities of the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. RESULTS: The total number of medical practitioners was 84. Their mean age was 33.97 (±9.55). The proportion of females was higher than males, only 28.3% of the participants responded correctly when asked about MOE. Similarly, very few were aware of the risks of MOE (2.5%), complications associated with it (17.3%) and the necessary procedures for managing patients (24.2%). The awareness of doctors in the primary health clinics about MOE was significantly better than those in hospitals (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: There was a significant deficiency in the knowledge of GPs on MOE. Therefore, health education and awareness programs on MOE are recommended. Furthermore, we recommend that it is necessary to encourage the use of the term “Diabetic EAR “to increase the level of awareness of physicians about MOE.
  1,444 194 -
Prevalence of patients with epilepsy unfit to drive
Esra' H Al Zaid
January-April 2019, 26(1):51-56
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_177_17  PMID:30697105
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus among medical experts as to whether patients with epilepsy (PWEs) should be permitted to drive. PWEs who have had uncontrolled seizures in the past year are at an increased risk of road traffic accidents, often leading to the destruction of property, injury, or death. Currently, there is no clear policy on whether PWEs can drive in Saudi Arabia. Existing policies attempt to balance the potentially harmful and beneficial aspects of the issue. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of PWEs who are unfit to drive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected by interviews, a structured validated questionnaire, and a review of the medical records of 140 PWEs, with a response rate of 84%. RESULTS: Fifty four percent of PWEs were found unfit to drive. Of the 118 participants, 17.7% did not drive and 97 (82.3%) drove. Of the 21 patients who did not drive, 14 (11.8% of the total sample) never drove and 7 (5.9% of the total sample) stopped driving because of epilepsy. Of the 104 patients who drove, 45 (43.2% of the total sample) had a history of seizures while they drove. These incidents had resulted in the involvement of 28 patients (26.9% of the total sample) in motor vehicle accidents and 17 (16.3% of the total sample) patients being admitted to the emergency room. CONCLUSION: Structured regulation and licensing procedures are necessary for PWEs to drive safely. Regulations in other countries demand that seizures be controlled for 1 year before epileptic patients are allowed unrestricted driving. Such regulations would improve road safety in Saudi Arabia.
  1,189 182 1
Chest pain as a possible side effect of pitavastatin (Livalo)
Nada R AlZahrani, Amna F Yassin
January-April 2019, 26(1):61-63
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_74_18  PMID:30697107
Coronary heart disease is a serious complication of dyslipidemia. Pitavastatin is a more commonly prescribed medication for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Here, we report the case of a 37-year-old female, a known patient with well-controlled bronchial asthma. She was recently found to be dyslipidemic and started on pitavastatin calcium 4 mg once a day (OD). On the 10th day of treatment, she began to have crushing chest pain and was admitted to the hospital. All investigations for coronary heart disease came out negative. Her symptoms improved dramatically when pitavastatin was stopped. Pitavastatin is reported to cause myalgia and muscle spasm, especially at higher doses. There is evidence in literature that this medication might cause chest pain in old obese ladies if taken at high doses. We report this case as a possibility of chest pain even in younger females.
  1,183 161 -
Battling pseudoscience in the era of medical misinformation – rising role of health advocacy
Dinesh Kumar
January-April 2019, 26(1):67-68
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_95_18  PMID:30697109
  953 184 -
Accidental ingestion of hairpin in an adolescent girl
Ahmed A Almarhabi
January-April 2019, 26(1):64-66
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_77_18  PMID:30697108
Ingestion of headscarf pin is a particular type of foreign body ingestion sometimes experienced by adolescent girls and even older women while putting on their headscarf. We report on a 13-year-old girl who presented at the emergency unit at our hospital within 48 hr after accidentally swallowing a headscarf pin. The pin was successfully retrieved from the ascending colon through colonoscopy. Headscarf pin ingestion is a serious problem among women who wear headscarves for various reasons. However, the retrieval of such pins from the colon through colonoscopy has been infrequently reported.
  1,006 128 -


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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010