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   2018| May-August  | Volume 25 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 3, 2018

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Infant and young child feeding index and its association with nutritional status: A cross-sectional study of urban slums of Ahmedabad
Shalu R Chaudhary, Samarth Govil, Mrudula K Lala, Hardik B Yagnik
May-August 2018, 25(2):88-94
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_82_17  PMID:29922108
BACKGROUND: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are multidimensional and change rapidly in short intervals in the 1st year of life, asking for simultaneous assessment of various feeding dimensions in children of 6 months and older. Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) is a composite index which measures complete feeding practices for infants and young children. The present study was conducted to assess IYCF practices for children aged 6–36 months in terms of ICFI and some sociodemographic factors and find out the association of ICFI with nutritional status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2015 to October 2015 in Girdharnagar ward of Ahmedabad. Two hundred and ten mother–child pairs were selected by two-staged cluster sampling and were interviewed using a schedule adapted from Knowledge, Practices, and Coverage 2000+ model questionnaire. Appropriate anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional indicators were calculated. Chi-square test, t- test, and regression analysis were applied wherever required. Epi info version 7.0 and MS Excel 2007 were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Nearly 65.2% of the children were stunted, 43.3% were underweight, and 11.9% were wasted. Only 38.3% of the children were initiated on breastfeeding within 1 h of birth. Only 19.1% of the children were breastfed for 2 years and beyond. Meal frequency was adequate in 64.3% and dietary diversity of >4 food groups was given to only 15.7% of the children. Significant higher proportions of children with low ICFI scores had illiterate mothers, were older, and belonged to lower socioeconomic strata. There was statistically significant association of ICFI with all the three nutritional status indicators. Higher proportion of children with lower ICFI scores had lower weight-for-height Z-scores, weight-for-age Z-scores, and height-for-age Z-scores. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that ICFI can be used to measure IYCF practices in a single composite index, which in turn can reflect the nutritional status of the children.
  2,959 562 4
Stress, anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction among postmenopausal women in Shiraz, Iran, 2015
Zahra Yazdanpanahi, Marzieh Nikkholgh, Marzieh Akbarzadeh, Saeedh Pourahmad
May-August 2018, 25(2):82-87
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_117_17  PMID:29922107
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with decreased sexual activity and a feeling of decreased attractiveness and sexual potency. This study tested the hypothesis that sexual health in postmenopausal women is not the same as nonmenopausal women with regard to symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 health centers in Shiraz between April and September 2015; 310 postmenopausal women included by convenient sampling. Data were collected through the Female Sexual Function Index, and depression anxiety stress scale 21 questionnaires. Analysis performed using SPSS version 22 and included descriptive statistics, Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and Pearson correlation and linear regression; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The percentage of women with sexual dysfunction in the present study was 88.7%. There was a significant relationship between stress (p = 0.04), anxiety (p = 0.01), and sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant relationship between depression (p = 0.003) and sexual dysfunction. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was an inverse relationship among stress (−0.24), anxiety (−0.25), depression (−0.30), and sexual function. In addition, linear regression results showed that depression was the most important factor in the description of sexual dysfunction. CONCLUSION: This study showed that there is an association of the status of mental health and sexual function in post-menopausal women. However, more studies should be carried out to find the confounders.
  2,900 466 5
Self-medication with antibiotics in a primary care setting in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mohammed A Al-Qahtani, Hussein S Amin, Abdullah A Al-Qahtani, Abdullah M Alshahrani, Hani A Alghamdi, Musa S Althwayee, Ahmed A Alzahrani
May-August 2018, 25(2):95-101
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_124_17  PMID:29922109
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in King Khalid University Hospital population and evaluate the factors affecting this behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at King Khalid university hospital from April to May 2016. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was handed to a random selection of 519 patients attending the primary care clinics . Data were entered into Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and sent to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of self-medication with antibiotics was 40.8%. Older patients and males were most likely to use antibiotics without a prescription. The most common illnesses that made patients use antibiotics was upper respiratory tract infections (73.2%). Commercial pharmacies were the major source 82.8%. Only 27.8% patients consulted their physicians for the correct dosage . The previous experience with a similar illness (67.2%) and difficulty in obtaining medical help (29.3%) were the most common reasons for self-administration of antibiotics. Improved health condition (57.8%) was the main reason for stopping the use of antibiotics while lack of improvement in health status led to a shift to another antibiotic in 62.5% of the respondents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of using antibiotics without a prescription is relatively high. Proper education of the public on the dangers of the misuse of antibiotics through the media might help to reduce this practice.
  2,410 395 2
Mobile phone use while driving and the risk of collision: A study among preparatory year students at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Fahad S Al-Jasser, Ashry G Mohamed, Abduljamil Choudry, Randa M Youssef
May-August 2018, 25(2):102-107
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_139_17  PMID:29922110
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of mobile phones use while driving by the students of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, their perception of the risks, and contribution to collisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014 targeting 986 male students of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on possessing a driving license, years of driving experience, driving hours, and collision or near misses in the 6 months preceding the study. Eight statements were used to assess the behavior and perceptions related to the use of mobile phones while driving. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square statistic, odds ratio, and the 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Almost half of the participants (45.3%) had driving experience of 4–6 years and 18.3% of them did not possess a driving license. Collision in the preceding 6 months was reported by 44.6% of participants, and 37.9% of them attributed these collisions to mobile phones. Variable proportions reported that they always texted (53.3%) or talked on a handheld (66.2%) or hands-free (26.1%) phones while driving. A higher proportion conceded that there were hazards in texting (77.0%) and speaking on handheld mobile phones (83.9%) rather than hands-free (35.9%) while driving. The risk increased significantly from 2.052 among participants who reported that they drove daily for 1–2 h to 3.165 of those who reported that they drove for more than 6 h. No significant risk was observed in relation to participants' perceptions, age, driving experience, and possession of a driving license. CONCLUSIONS: There was a risk of collision with the use of handheld and hands-free mobile phones. As hands-free mobile phones are no safer, national legislation should consider restricting their use by drivers and implementing legislations to reinforce safety on the roads. An objective assessment of the contribution of mobile phones to road traffic injuries is recommended.
  2,364 374 2
How do Saudi diabetic patients perceive their illness? A multicenter survey using revised-illness perception questionnaire
Sameer H Al-Ghamdi, Gulfam A.U. Ahmad, Ali H Ali, Nasraddin O Bahakim, Salman I Alomran, Waleed K Alhowikan, Salman M Almutairi, Tariq A Basalem, Faisal F Aljuaid
May-August 2018, 25(2):75-81
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_63_17  PMID:29922106
BACKGROUND: Illness perception questionnaires for various medical conditions have become more useful in recent years. However, very few have used this to address the issue of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted among type 2 diabetic patients attending primary healthcare centers and Al Kharj Military Industries Corporation Hospital in Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia, during November 24, 2016, to April 24, 2017. SPSS used for analysis that included descriptive statistics, t-test, and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 383 of them were returned; response rate about 77%. Majority of participants (80.4%) were educated, 69.5% were married, and 51% were females. About 57% were on OHA, and 57% had no other chronic disease. Most participants perceived that diabetes was hereditary (75%), and 62.4% thought it is due to diet or eating habits. About 80% participants believed that there is a lot they can do to control symptoms. About 73% participants believed they have the power to influence diabetes, whereas 78% think there is very little that can be done to improve diabetes and treatment can control diabetes. The Cronbach's alpha value for identity, timeline (cyclical), and emotional factors were relatively high, showing that these scales had a strong level of internal consistency. CONCLUSION: Saudis with type 2 diabetes mellitus had adequate knowledge of their disease. They agreed that diabetes was likely to be permanent and would have major consequences on their lives.
  2,144 425 1
MEDICAL EDUCATION
Attitude of Saudi medical students towards complementary and alternative medicine
Badr O Albadr, Mohammed Alrukban, Jawad Almajed, Khalid Alotaibi, Abdullah Alangari, Abdullah Bawazir, Abdulelah Aljasser
May-August 2018, 25(2):120-126
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_98_17  PMID:29922113
BACKGROUND: Alternative medicine is defined as medical therapies that are not regarded as orthodox by the medical profession. The teaching of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in medical schools is becoming prevalent worldwide. Only a few studies have been done to assess medical students' attitude toward CAM and the need for CAM courses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students in two universities, King Saud (KSU) and Majmaah (MU) medical colleges, between February and April 2015. A survey was developed and validated by a pilot study. Data were gathered from both colleges by means of hard and soft copy surveys. Medical students of both genders from the 1st year to the 5th year from both universities were targeted in this study. Fifth-year students from Majmaah and students from the preparatory year were excluded from the study. KSU students comprised 1433, while MU students comprised only 180. The sample size was 384. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: The study included 399 medical students. Bloodletting is the most known modality (80.7%), while homeopathy is the least known with a percentage of 7.47%. The overall assessment of the attitude toward CAM was neutral, with a mean of 3.1. Students who had taken a CAM course previously were more satisfied with their knowledge than those who had not, showing a statistical significance of P = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: This study showed a lack of knowledge of CAM among medical students. There was an association between taking a CAM course and students' satisfaction with their knowledge. Most of the students agreed with the inclusion of CAM courses in the medical curriculum.
  2,190 265 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
How does the utilization of diabetes dietitian and educator service in Saudi Arabia affect glycemic outcomes?
Saad M Alshareef, Mujahed A Alkhathlan, Abdullah A Alwabel, Abdulkarim A Al-Bawardi, Abdulrahman H Alqarni, Ali S Almuryidi, Ibrahim N Altuwaim, Monther Khalid Alhabib, Omar A Almuzaini, Turki S Alqahtani
May-August 2018, 25(2):108-113
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_126_17  PMID:29922111
BACKGROUND: Despite the acknowledgment that the services of diabetes educator and dietician affect outcome, the level of utilization of these services in the Saudi Arabian public health-care system is not known. The aims of the study were to establish the percentage of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) followed up by a diabetic educator and a dietician in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia and associations between follow-up by a diabetic educator and a dietician and glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 490 diabetic patients who attended the diabetic outpatient clinic consecutively at a public health-care institution in Riyadh. Patients answered interview questions on clinicodemographic variables and diabetic educator or dietitian follow-up during their care. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C [%, mmol/mol]) and fasting blood glucose (mg/dL, mmol/L) levels were recorded. RESULTS: The majority of patients were male (68.8%), Saudi (71%), married (91.6%), high school or college educated (55.5%), had type 2 DM (85.5%), and were taking oral hypoglycemics (57.3%). 69.0% and 19.8% of the patients had had at least some follow-up with a diabetic educator and dietician, respectively. HbA1C levels were significantly lower in patients who had had a follow-up with a dietitian (9.1 ± 4.5% [76 ± 26 mmol/mol] vs. 7.8 ± 2.2% [62 ± 13 mmol/mol]; unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.80, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 0.71–0.89, P < 0.0001), including in multivariable analysis (adjusted OR: 0.84, 95% CIs: 0.72–0.99, P = 0.04). Follow-up with a diabetic educator was not associated with glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up with a diabetic dietitian had the greatest impact on glycemic control in type 1 and type 2 DM patients. A review of the national standards of best practice of diabetes education and nutrition in Saudi Arabia is required to optimize the outcomes.
  1,647 177 1
Pathway to care and clinical profile of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in New Delhi, India
Puneet Anand, Ankur Sachdeva, Vipin Kumar
May-August 2018, 25(2):114-119
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_142_16  PMID:29922112
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioral disorder, which may cause impairment in multiple domains. Understanding the pathway to care helps in planning effective early interventions. The study aims to provide a quantitative description of the factors affecting the help-seeking pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at an outpatients department of a tertiary care multispecialty hospital. Fifty consecutive consenting children aged 5–15 years were screened and diagnosed for ADHD using Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition text revision criteria, and Kiddie Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to study the pathway of care, using the WHO template. The data were analyzed using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests in SPSS software. RESULTS: The average delay from the onset of the illness to first consultation with a qualified health professional was 2.32 ± 1.9 years. Children with an urban background, from a nuclear family, with literate mothers, with a family income of more than Rs. 30,000/month, having hyperactive and combined type of ADHD, and who were referred by school teachers presented significantly earlier. The main source of referrals were school teachers and general medical practitioners. The most common parental beliefs for delay were the views that the “child is naughty” and that “hyperactivity is part of normal growth.” CONCLUSION: Parents' help-seeking behavior is affected by different sociocultural beliefs. Such factors as the lack of recognition and awareness of ADHD, resulting in the delay in seeking treatment should be addressed through health promotion programs.
  1,415 182 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Lytic skull metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid: A case diagnosed on cytology
Disha Arora, Niti Singh, Veena Doda
May-August 2018, 25(2):129-130
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_97_17  PMID:29922116
  1,147 111 -
A comment on Mokabel et al. (2017)
Saurav Basu
May-August 2018, 25(2):127-128
DOI:10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_189_17  PMID:29922114
  1,039 101 -
Author's Reply
Fatma M Mokabel, Shadia F Aboulazm, Hanan E Hassan, Mona F Al-Qahtani, Seham F Alrashedi, Fatma A Zainuddin
May-August 2018, 25(2):128-128
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.231800  PMID:29922115
  939 90 -
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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010