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   2017| January-April  | Volume 24 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 30, 2016

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Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study
Nizar A Majeedkutty, Nor A.B. Khairulanuar
January-April 2017, 24(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197177  PMID:28163571
Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. Results: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. Conclusions: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian activities.
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Acne vulgaris: Perceptions and beliefs of Saudi adolescent males
Sahar H Al-Natour
January-April 2017, 24(1):34-43
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197180  PMID:28163574
Introduction: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. Materials And Methods: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13-22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. Conclusion: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition.
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Use of hormones and nutritional supplements among gyms' attendees in Riyadh
Sulaiman A Alshammari, Mishal A AlShowair, Abdulmalik AlRuhaim
January-April 2017, 24(1):6-12
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197175  PMID:28163569
Background: Worldwide, studies have shown a high prevalence of hormones and nutritional supplement use by athletes and gym members. Many athletes consume unproven, potentially harmful or even banned supplements. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of the use of hormones and nutritional supplements by people who exercise in gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the types of supplements they most commonly use and to obtain a general view of the main reasons for using these enhancements. Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at gyms in Riyadh that were selected randomly from different sectors of the city. The sample size was estimated at 289, but the actual number of randomly selected participants in the study was 457. Results: The number of gym members who participated in this study was 457. Approximately 47.9% of the sample reported an intake of nutritional supplements and 7.9% reported that they took hormones. Protein powder was consumed by 83.1% of the participants. Approximately 16.8% of supplement users had noticed some side effects, and 25.7% of those who took hormones had stopped taking them because of adverse effects. Only half of the hormone users (54.2%) reported that they had had medical checkups. The major source of information on supplement and hormone use was non-health professionals; friends being major source (40%) of information on the use of hormones. The use of nutritional supplements was significantly associated with BMI (OR = 1.89, CI = 1.06-3.39), duration of daily exercise (OR = 4.23, CI = 2.06-8.68), and following a special diet (OR = 8.42, CI = 5.37-13.2). There was a very strong association between nutritional supplement consumption and hormone use (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants who regularly exercised in gyms took nutritional supplements, and most had received their information from nonhealth professionals. There was an association between the duration of exercise and the use of hormones and supplements. Fewer than half of hormone users had obtained a health-care provider's advice before taking it. The atmosphere in the gym can play an important role in members' decisions. Educating gym employees and members may have a positive influence on the use of supplements and hormones.
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Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its correlates among diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic at National Guard Hospital in Alhasa
Aneesah A AlFehaid
January-April 2017, 24(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197174  PMID:28163568
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases encountered in clinical practice. Diabetic nephropathy is a common consequence of long-standing diabetes mellitus; microalbuminuria (MA) is considered an early stage of diabetic nephropathy. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of miciroalbuminuria in diabetic patients and factors associated with MA. Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the diabetic clinic of the primary health center of the National Guard Hospital. Diabetes type 2 patients between the ages of 20-60 years who attended the clinic in 2012 were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing medical records for demographic and disease-related variables. MA was detected by measuring the albumin to creatinine ratio, and MA was diagnosed if this ratio was between 30 and 300 mg/g on two occasions. Results: MA was found in 37.4% of the sample and the rate was significantly higher among females (P < 0.027). MA was positively related to body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.002), the presence of hypertension (P < 0.000), duration of diabetes (P < 0.000), glycated hemoglobin (P < 0.000), fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.000), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P < 0.043). No statistically significant correlation was found between MA and age, creatinine level, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride. Conclusion: The prevalence of MA in patients with diabetes in this study was high. The study suggests the need to screen for MA early, and the active management of modifiable risk factors, in particular, hyperglycemia, hypertension, LDL, and BMI, to reduce the burden of future end-stage renal disease.
  2 2,864 513
Hepatitis C infection awareness among fourth year medical students at University of Dammam
Abdulelah H Almansour, Magdy A Darwish, Moataza M Abdel Wahab
January-April 2017, 24(1):49-54
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197182  PMID:28163576
Objectives: To determine awareness about hepatitis C among 4 th -year medical students at Dammam University, on hepatitis C and possible associated factors. Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire comprising questions on awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, screening of the population, symptoms, complications, prevention, and treatment. Results: A total of 201 students participated, with a response rate of 79.8%. About 75% of students had a poor grasp of HCV transmission while the awareness of <25% of students was fair. More than half of students had fair knowledge about screening, prevention, and treatment of HCV. The majority of students were familiar with the clinical presentation and complications of HCV. The overall awareness of the 4 th -year medical students on HCV infection was fair, with no significant difference between males and females. Conclusions: Overall grasp of hepatitis C by the studied group was fair. However, there were serious gaps in their knowledge, which need to be filled or modified, especially knowledge about transmission which was poor.
  2 1,572 210
Knee problems and its associated factors among active cyclists in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
Abdullatif K Althunyan, Magdy A Darwish, Moataza M Abdel Wahab
January-April 2017, 24(1):23-29
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197178  PMID:28163572
Introduction: Bicycling is one of the most enjoyable aerobic exercises recommended for the promotion of an individual's health. The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has seen a huge increase in the number of people who cycle. People have different goals for bicycling, but the injuries they sustain are common. Most of them relate to overuse, particularly of lower body joints. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of knee problems and factors associated with knee pain in cyclists. Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015, using an online self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on pertinent literature, was piloted, and validated. A web link was sent to 513 cyclists (professional and amateur) using E-mail, WhatsApp application, or SMS. Three hundred and eleven responses were received, 283 of which were included in the analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of knee pain was 25.8%; 27.6% for amateur cyclists and 15.9% for professional cyclists. Only 17.2% knee pain was attributed to cycling, whereas in 32.8% it happened spontaneously and in 25% of cases it occurred while running. Majority of the cyclists reported pain as mild (61.6%) or moderate (28.7%); anterior knee pain accounted for 58.1% knee pain. Different goals of cycling and different bicycle types had statistically significant difference on the rate of knee pain. Of underweight cyclists, 62.2% reported knee pain. Cyclists who run more or participated in football had a higher rate of pain. Conclusion: Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain.
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Comment on "Budding adult hypertensives with modifiable risk factors: Catch them young"
Mahendra M Reddy, Manikandan Srinivasan, Kalaiselvi Selvaraj
January-April 2017, 24(1):55-56
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197184  PMID:28163577
  - 1,022 108
Author's Reply
Aravind Ramanathan, Prabha Senguttuvan, Vel Prakash, Appasamy Vengadesan, Rajendiran Padmaraj
January-April 2017, 24(1):56-56
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197185  PMID:28163578
  - 986 93
Comments on "Preconception care of Saudi women with diabetes mellitus"
Anubhav Chauhan, Lalit Gupta
January-April 2017, 24(1):57-57
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197186  PMID:28163579
  - 999 106
Author's Reply
Amal Y Madanat, Eman A Sheshah
January-April 2017, 24(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197187  PMID:28163580
  - 960 83
Effect of private versus emergency medical systems transportation in motor vehicle accident victims: Trauma Center Experience in Saudi Arabia
Mohammed S Alshahrani
January-April 2017, 24(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197179  PMID:28163573
Objective: To assess the effect of the mode of transportation of trauma patients (emergency medical service [EMS] vs. non-EMS) on their final clinical outcome in terms of mortality and length of hospital stay. Materials And Methods: A retrospective study included all patients who were involved in motor vehicle crashes, and who were transferred immediately to an emergency department of a trauma care center from December 2008 to December 2012. Patients were classified into two groups: those brought through EMS and those brought by non-EMS (private transport). Information on demographic characteristics including age and gender was recorded and medical data such as blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, temperature, initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), saturation, temperature, initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), injury severity score (ISS), and final outcome (discharged or expired) were obtained. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation (SD) were computed for continuous variables and statistical significance was tested by t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test. Categorical variables were described by frequency distribution and percentages; Chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate were employed to test for statistical significance. Logistics regression was performed with mortality as dependent variable and mode of transport and all demographic and prehospital variables as independent variables. A general linear model analysis was performed to test whether the mode of transport was significant to length of hospital stay in EMS and non-EMS clients. Results: Out of 308 patients identified during the study period, 232 were transported through EMS and 76 through non-EMS. The two groups were similar with regard to mortality and length of stay. The crude mortality rate was 30.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.64-36.53) in the EMS group and 28.9% (95% CI: 18.44-38.76) in the non-EMS group (p = 0.785). The average length of hospital stay was 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 8, 95% CI: 7.3-10.1) for the EMS group and 8 days (IQR = 9.5, 95% CI: 6.7-10.9) for the non-EMS group (p = 0.803). Multivariate analysis showed that of the study variables, only the injury severity score (ISS) and Glasgow coma score (GCS) were significant to mortality (p < 0.01), and GCS was more significant to the length of hospital stay (p < 0.01). Conclusions: There was no significant difference between the EMS and non-EMS groups as they relate to mortality and length of stay in hospital. However, the mortality and length of hospital stay was statistically significant to ISS and GCS.
  - 1,319 173
Positive impact of rescheduling Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination on vaccinations at birth
Simmi Oberoi, Singh Amarjit, Randhawa Avneet, Chaudhary Neha, Siriesha Patnaik
January-April 2017, 24(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197176  PMID:28163570
Context: Inimitable among the trio of recommended immunizations administered to newborns at delivery centers of institutions is hepatitis B. While it is necessary for hepatitis B to be given within 24 hours of birth, the same cannot be said for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and zero-dose oral polio vaccine (OPV). Objective: To assess the impact of rescheduling of BCG vaccination from the current twice weekly to daily to cover newborn vaccinations at the Government Medical College, Patiala, India. Materials And Methods: Until 2015, the delivery of BCG vaccine was restricted to twice a week, but from the year 2015, the schedule was changed from twice weekly to daily. Records for the 2 years, 2014 and 2015, were obtained, i.e., before and after the change. Data on 7065 babies born from January 2014 to December 2015 were statistically analyzed for the coverage of birth dose of hepatitis B, BCG, and OPV using Microsoft Excel. Chi-square test was applied, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Rescheduling of BCG dose, from twice weekly to daily, the coverage of BCG and OPV zero dose increased from 54% (in 2014) to 78% (in 2015), and a marked increase from 8.2% to 42.9% was noted for the birth dose of hepatitis B. By rescheduling BCG (twice weekly to daily), the vaccine wastage increased from 21.5% to 26.2%, the difference found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Modification in the delivery of immunization service from twice a week to daily has had a good impact on the vaccination of newborns though the goal of achieving the ideal 100% coverage is yet to be reached. Apart from the immunization of newborns, improving parental awareness, better coordination between immunization staff and maternal health staff, improved communication, and clear delineation of responsibility and answerability in the immunization service delivery will have a good impact on the vaccination of newborns.
  - 1,828 240
Does environmental cigarette smoke affect breastfeeding behavior?
Mozhgan Firouzbakht, Karimallah Hajian-Tilaki, Maryam Nikpour, Zahra Banihosseini
January-April 2017, 24(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.197181  PMID:28163575
Background: Exposure of lactating women to environmental cigarette smoke may increase cotinine in breast milk, which in turn may reduce the volume of milk and the duration of breastfeeding. Objectives: To assess the relationship between exposure to environmental cigarette smoke and breastfeeding behavior. Materials And Methods : This prospective cohort study was conducted on 290 mothers in Babol - Iran, who had been breastfeeding for 3-5 days after delivery. The lactating mothers were divided into two groups: those exposed to environmental cigarette smoke, and those free from smoke exposure. The study questionnaire included demographic data, information on environmental cigarette smoke, and breastfeeding behavior. Data was collected through telephone interviews at 2, 4, and 6 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, and test of significance using Chi-square test, t-test, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The continuation of breastfeeding for the group of exposed mothers and the unexposed group was (mean ± standard deviation) 5.57 ± 0.098 and 5.58 ± 0.109, respectively in 6 months of follow-up. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.93). The percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months in the group exposed to cigarette smoke was 65% compared to 76% of the nonexposed group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.149). Conclusions: In this study, no significant association was observed between the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke and the nonexposed group in breastfeeding behavior, although the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less in the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke. Further exploratory studies are needed.
  - 1,372 170


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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010