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   2011| September-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 3  
    Online since November 19, 2011

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice
Kandasamy Ravichandran, Nasser A Al-Hamdan, Gamal Mohamed
September-December 2011, 18(3):135-142
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90013  PMID:22175041
Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and 'heard of cancer warning signal' were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.
  31 8,740 1,127
BRIEF REPORTS
Propolis and its direct and indirect hypoglycemic effect
Mohamed T Al-Hariri
September-December 2011, 18(3):152-154
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90015  PMID:22175043
Propolis means a gum that is gathered by bees from various plants. It is strongly adhesive resinous substance, collected, transformed, and used by bees to seal holes in their honeycombs. Bees use it to seal holes in their honeycombs, smooth out internal walls, as well as to cover carcasses of intruders who died inside the hive in order to avoid their decomposition. Propolis also protects the colony from diseases because of its antiseptic efficacy and antimicrobial properties. It also has been reported to possess various biological activities, namely anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and hypolipidemic. The aim of this review is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of propolis since a little number of researches studied this effect when we compare with the huge number of papers that reported many other biological activities.
  12 3,546 650
Implementation of computerized physician order entry in National Guard hospitals: Assessment of critical success factors
Majid M Altuwaijri, Abdullah Bahanshal, Mona Almehaid
September-December 2011, 18(3):143-151
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90014  PMID:22175042
Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the needs, process and experience of implementing a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system in a leading healthcare organization in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: The National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA) deployed the CPOE in a pilot department, which was the intensive care unit (ICU) in order to assess its benefits and risks and to test the system. After the CPOE was implemented in the ICU area, a survey was sent to the ICU clinicians to assess their perception on the importance of 32 critical success factors (CSFs) that was acquired from the literature. The project team also had several meetings to gather lessons learned from the pilot project in order to utilize them for the expansion of the project to other NGHA clinics and hospitals. Results: The results of the survey indicated that the selected CSFs, even though they were developed with regard to international settings, are very much applicable for the pilot area. The top three CSFs rated by the survey respondents were: The "before go-live" training, the adequate clinical resources during implementation, and the ordering time. After the assessment of the survey and the lessons learned from the pilot project, NGHA decided that the potential benefits of the CPOE are expected to be greater the risks expected. The project was then expanded to cover all NGHA clinics and hospitals in a phased approach. Currently, the project is in its final stages and expected to be completed by the end of 2011. Conclusion: The role of CPOE systems is very important in hospitals in order to reduce medication errors and to improve the quality of care. In spite of their great benefits, many studies suggest that a high percentage of these projects fail. In order to increase the chances of success and due to the fact that CPOE is a clinical system, NGHA implemented the system first in a pilot area in order to test the system without putting patients at risk and to learn from mistakes before expanding the system to other areas. As a result of the pilot project, NGHA developed a list of CSFs to increase the likelihood of project success for the expansion of the system to other clinics and hospitals. The authors recommend a future study for the CPOE implementation to be done that covers the implementation in all the four NGHA hospitals. The results of the study can then be generalized to other hospitals in Saudi Arabia.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university
Rizwana B Shaikh, Elsheba Mathew, Jayadevan Sreedharan, Jayakumary Muttappallymyalil, Shatha Al Sharbatti, Shaikh A Basha
September-December 2011, 18(3):124-129
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90011  PMID:22175039
Context: Hypertension in youth is increasing, but there is a dearth of data about the knowledge of risk factors in this age group. Aims: To assess the knowledge of risk factors of hypertension among university students and associate it with the blood pressure, physical activity, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and sociodemographic variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among students enrolled in the first year, in the four academic programs, with the use of a validated, self-administered questionnaire on physical activity in the past 30 days and knowledge of risk factors of hypertension. A score of 6 on 11 was considered as good knowledge for modifiable risk factors. Blood pressure was also measured. The data was analyzed using PASW-17, Chi square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Of the 110 participants, 69.2% were < 20 years of age, 76.4% were females, and 40% were Arabs. Stress, high cholesterol, obesity, and smoking were identified as risk factors by 75.5, 73.6, 77.6, and 71.8%, respectively; 69.1% considered high salt intake and 62.7% considered high calorie diet as risk factors. Energy drink was considered as a risk factor by 64.5%, coffee consumption 35.5%, physical inactivity 47%, and oral contraceptives 13.6%. Half the group did not consider a family history of CVD as a risk factor, 60% did not consider older age as a risk factor, and 88% did not think male gender was a risk factor. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors was better than that of non-modifiable risk factors. Although nationality, course of study, raised blood pressure, and history of diabetes showed significant association with good knowledge, their net effect was not significant by the Adjusted Odd's Ratio. Conclusions: The study identified some gaps in knowledge regarding both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of hypertension among students. A larger study would enable health promotion activities tailored to the needs of this age group.
  7 7,139 1,544
CASE REPORTS
Recurrent hydatidiform mole: A case report of six consecutive molar pregnancies complicated by choriocarcinoma, and review of the literature
Ahlam A Al-Ghamdi
September-December 2011, 18(3):159-161
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90018  PMID:22175045
Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Recurrence of HM is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a patient with six consecutive partial HMs without normal pregnancy. A 42-year-old lady who was referred to us at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, initially as a case of 26-year-old with persistent trophoblastic disease after three recurrent molar pregnancies that were confirmed histologically in the referring hospital. She underwent evacuation and curettage and was followed up by serial β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and did not require chemotherapy. She then had three more molar pregnancies in 1995, 1996, and 2004; all molar pregnancies were evacuated by suction curettage at her base hospital, but in the last event, she complained of shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Diagnostic workup in our hospital confirmed choriocarcinoma, for which she received multiple regimen chemotherapy and was cured. Unfortunately, she lately presented with symptoms suggestive of premature menopause.
  4 3,890 483
Peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity
I-Ching Lin, Ying Li Lin
September-December 2011, 18(3):162-164
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90020  PMID:22175046
A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an important role in pathogenesis. This uncommon neurological complication might be due to rapid weight loss and vitamin deficiency. Physicians who take care for patients after bariatric surgery should have a high index of awareness for the neurologic complications, and routine vitamin supplementation might be useful for these patients.
  4 3,885 448
An unusual complication of unsafe abortion
Sunita Gupta, Himanshu Chauhan, Garima Goel, Shashank Mishra
September-December 2011, 18(3):165-167
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90021  PMID:22175047
Unsafe abortion is a significant medical and social problem worldwide. In developing countries, most of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained personnel leading to high mortality and morbidity. Case Report: A 30 year-old female, gravida 7, para 6 underwent uterine evacuation for heavy bleeding per vaginum following intake of abortifacient to abort a 14 weeks gestation. The procedure was performed at a rural setup and her bowel was pulled out of the introitus through the perforated wound, an unusual complication of unsafe abortion. Illiteracy, unawareness about health services, and easy accessibility to untrained abortion providers lead to very high mortality and morbidity in India. There is unmet need to bring awareness among the people about the safe and effective methods of contraception and abortion services to avoid such complications.
  4 4,902 429
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Inpatients' care experience and satisfaction study
Salih A Binsalih, Abdelkarim O Waness, Hani M Tamim, Mohamed S Harakati, Abdulla A Al Sayyari
September-December 2011, 18(3):111-117
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90009  PMID:22175037
Objective and Background: Measures to promote patient satisfaction are important components of the assessment of outcome and strategies for the delivery of health care. In this article, we assess satisfaction among inpatients and the impact of demographics on satisfaction levels. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey adapted from previously used survey tools and validated in our patient group included questions on demographics, communication skills, hospital environment, and the patients' overall evaluation of the hospital. Inpatients from acute wards of five different specialties who stayed for at least 2 days were enrolled. Results: There were 988 respondents with a mean age of 39.1 years (25.9%) and the mean length of stay (LOS) of 10.0 days (24.1%). Illiteracy rate was 42.4%, and 43.1% were male. The overall satisfaction scores-out of five-were 4.3 (0.6%) for communication with nurses, 4.4 (0.4%) for communication with doctors, and 4.1 (0.3%) for hospital environment; 98.9% of the patients would recommend the hospital to their family and friends. The lowest score was for the "room environment" (3.99, 0.8%) and the highest for "overall services of the hospital" (4.7, 0.5%). Satisfaction levels drop significantly with LOS of more than 4 days (P < 0.006). The satisfaction was higher in females than males across all the three domains of care assessed (P < 0.005). The highest satisfaction seen in the obstetrics service could be explained by the nature of the condition normally seen in this department and the normally good outcome. There was higher satisfaction in the medical than surgical services but this reached a significant level for the overall center score domain only (4.1, 0.3% versus 4.0, 0.3%; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The factors with positive impact on satisfaction were the female gender and shorter LOS. There was higher satisfaction in the medical than surgical services for all three domains reaching significant levels for center score only.
  4 5,052 827
Effect of adopting integrated management of childhood illness guidelines on drug use at a primary health care center: A case study from Egypt
Azza A El Mahalli, Ola A Akl
September-December 2011, 18(3):118-123
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90010  PMID:22175038
Background: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is a cost- effective strategy that improves the quality of care through the use of evidence- based management protocols for the most common causes of childhood death and illness. Evidence- based clinical guidelines are critical to promoting rational use of medicines. Despite the large number of studies that assessed process and outcome of care delivered to children utilizing IMCI protocol, there is a scarcity of studies that assessed the effect of adopting IMCI on the drug use. Aims: To examine the impact of adopting IMCI guidelines on drug use at one of the primary health care (PHC) centers, Alexandria, Egypt. Settings and Design: Retrospective cohort study, conducted in clinic "A" not adopting IMCI guidelines and clinic "B" adopting IMCI guidelines at one of the PHC centers in Alexandria, Egypt for the period from January-- end of June 2010. Materials and Methods: A data collection sheet was designed to collect the required variables (based on WHO/ INRUD selected drug use indicators) from the medical records of children under five years. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16 was used. Percentages, means, and standard deviations were measured. Chi square, t, and Fisher's exact tests were applied. Results: Correct drug choice, dose, dosage form, route of administration were significantly higher in the clinic adopting IMCI {clinic B} (89.3%, 87.3%, 91.3%, and 91.3%, respectively) than in the clinic not adopting it {clinic A} (78% each). Non pharmacological remedies prescribed were significantly higher in clinic B than A (64.7% vs 4.6%). Average no of drugs/ encounter was lower in clinic B than A (0.93± 0.2 vs 1.37 ± 0.6) and the difference between clinics was statistically significant. Difference between clinics regarding percentages of drugs prescribed by generic name, antibiotics prescribed, drugs prescribed from essential drug list, and drugs prescribed out of stock was significant. Conclusion: Adopting IMCI strategy improved prescribing performance and treatment regimen.
  4 3,036 511
Experience of the health promotion clinics in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah M Al-Shahrani, Yahia M Al-Khaldi
September-December 2011, 18(3):130-134
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90012  PMID:22175040
Context: Health promotion is the most important element of primary health care. Therefore, it is essential for the health team to apply such activity. Objective: To describe a newly established health promotion clinic at primary health care centers, in Abha city, KSA. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during the year 2009. The files of 429 individuals were reviewed after one year from attending the health promotion clinics in Abha city, KSA. Master sheet was designed based on the relevant items of the file. The health promotion services used in the study were based on the recommendation of the relevant guidelines. Data entry and analysis was carried out using Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS). P-values less than 0.05 were selected for statistical significance. Results: After one year, the percentage of the individuals who intake imbalanced diet and did not perform any type of physical activity was more than 90% while 8% are currently smokers and 14% had depression. Clinical examination and investigation revealed that more than one quarter of our subjects were overweight. Obesity was 42% in males versus 51% in females (P<0.04). Pre-hypertension and hypertension were detected among 44 and 12% respectively. About one fifth of our subjects had pre-diabetes 21% and 3% were confirmed to have diabetes mellitus. Diet and physical activity counseling was given to all participants while referral to concerned clinics was done for individuals who suffer from high blood sugar, abnormal lipid profile, obesity and depression. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that health promotion clinics provided by trained professional health care team can be used as a new approach for early detection and management of the common health problems in primary health care centers.
  3 3,227 431
BRIEF REPORTS
HIV/AIDS knowledge among first year MBBS, Nursing, Pharmacy students of a health university, India
Sandeep Sachdeva, Jagbir S Malik, Ruchi Sachdeva, Tilak R Sachdev
September-December 2011, 18(3):155-158
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90017  PMID:22175044
Objective: To determine level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students of a health university. Materials and Methods: A pre-designed, pre-tested, anonymous self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was circulated among available 129, 53 and 55 first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students during Oct' 09. Data entry, management and analysis were carried out using MS excel and software statistical package. Result: Out of the total 237 students, there were 123 (51.9%) female and 103 (44.0%) students from rural native place. A majority of students were able to correctly write the full form of AIDS (95.8%) in comparison to HIV (72.6%) and the difference between two terminologies were known to 87.6%, 81.1% and 70.9% of MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students, respectively. All four common routes of transmission of infection and methods of prevention were known to majority of the lot. However, injecting drug users (IDU) and truck driver as a risk category was correctly reported by 67.5% and 55.3% students, whereas 35.9% incorrectly mentioned that smoking is a risk factor for acquiring infection. A statistically significant (P <0.05) proportion of MBBS followed by nursing and pharmacy students were aware that infection neither spreads by social activities like handshake/playing nor by mosquito bite. However, low level was ascertained with regard to items related to non-curability of infection (57.4%) and availability of anti-retro viral therapy (27.4%). Conclusion: Overall high level of knowledge was recorded in the present study with a difference noted among students in three professional streams.
  1 3,517 428
EDITORIAL
Toward excellence in health care: A call for the Saudi Center for Health Excellence
Abdullah Alkhenizan, Tawfiq Khoja
September-December 2011, 18(3):99-100
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90006  PMID:22175035
  1 2,459 5,804
REVIEW ARTICLE
Medical angioplasty - Hope and expectations: An optimistic overview
Mohammed F Abdul-Mohsen
September-December 2011, 18(3):101-110
DOI:10.4103/2230-8229.90007  PMID:22175036
Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are markedly overlooked worldwide. The use of these kinds of preventive methods will greatly improve outcome of or even reverse major CVD, especially coronary atherosclerosis. Comprehensive lifestyle changes combined with aggressive medical therapy [lipid lowering agents "statins", antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors] for patients suffering from coronary heart disease significantly reduce all major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), especially in those with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), even if their coronary lesions are significant. The main mechanistic pathways for the significant reduction of MACE are: Stabilization of atheromatous plaques through endothelial function reparation, strengthening of the fibrous cap of the atheromatous plaque and reduction of atheroma burden, i.e., reversal of the process of coronary artery stenosis, the great dream of "medical angioplasty". Despite the compelling data indicating the great beneficial effects of both primary and secondary prevention of coronary atherosclerosis, the US national survey data reveals that only a minority of patients eligible by guidelines for these therapies in fact receive them. Hence, we strongly believe that our main duties as cardiologists is to improve the up-to-date knowledge of the practicing physicians about utility of aggressive medical therapy for both prevention and reversal of CVD, and also to promote useful primary and secondary prevention programs among physicians and patients. Meanwhile, further improvement and refinement of the current therapeutic modalities and introduction of new modalities for the management of lipid parameters other than LDL-C, such as HDL-C, triglyceride, lipoprotein (a), LDL particle size and susceptibility to oxidation may add further favourable effects in prevention and reversal of atherosclerotic process. Cardiologists should be just as aggressive with prevention as many have been with intervention. This optimistic overview is a valley cry to all practicing physicians; please depart from usual methods of intervention to preventive strategies which are largely overlooked.
  - 3,918 1,804
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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010