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   2006| September-December  | Volume 13 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 28, 2012

 
 
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PRACTICAL TIPS
Guidelines for the construction of multiple choice questions tests
Mohammed O Al-Rukban
September-December 2006, 13(3):125-133
PMID:23012132
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both "single best option" type, and "extended matching item" type. Some templates for use in the "single best option" type of questions are recommended.
  4,203 431 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Leptin levels in normal weight and obese Saudi adults
Ali I Al-Sultan, Abdulmohsen H Al-Elq
September-December 2006, 13(3):97-102
PMID:23012127
Objective : The purpose of the study was to measure serum leptin in normal weight and obese individuals, and assess its relation to anthropometric measures and metabolic indices. Methods : The study was conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia, from January 2003 to June 2004. Subjects included in the study were all non-diabetic normotensive adults. Variables measured were body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, serum leptin, insulin, glucose, and lipids. Results : Included were 43 non-obese subjects (20 men and 23 women) with the mean age of 25.8 + SD 5.3 y for men and 23.9 + SD 1.9 y for women and their mean BMI was 23.1 ± 1.4 for men and 23.0 ± 1.8 for women. Serum leptin was significantly higher in women 8.8 + SEM 2.10 than men 2.2 + SEM 0.26 ng /ml.Also included were 46 obese subjects (25 men and 21 women) with a mean age of 29.4 + SD 7.6 y for men and 28.8 + SD 6.2 y for women and a mean BMI of 35.5 ± 5.7 for men and 35.6 ± 4.4 for women. Serum leptin was significantly higher in women 23.0 + SEM 3.98, than men 12.5 + SEM 2.24 ng /ml. Serum leptin was significantly higher in obese men and women compared to non-obese subjects. Serum leptin significantly, and positively correlated with BMI (r 0.440), hip circumference (r 0.425), serum insulin (r 0.334), and HOMA IR (r 0.334).There was no correlation with mean age, mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, or WHR. Conclusions : Serum leptin increased with obesity, and was higher in women than men, both lean and obese. Serum leptin correlated positively with BMI and hip circumference. Though, correlation between leptin and insulin resistance was found, they probably reflect two different metabolic compartments.
  1,860 226 -
Attitude and practice towards road traffic regulations among students of health sciences college in Aseer region
Yahia M Al-Khaldi
September-December 2006, 13(3):109-113
PMID:23012129
Objective: The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of male students at the Health Science College in Abha, towards road traffic regulations. Material and Methods: This study was carried out during the second semester of the academic year 2002G among the students studying at the Health Science College for Boys in Abha, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire of 28 different questions was distributed to all available students and responded to under the direct supervision of the heads of the six departments of the college. The questionnaire consisted of three main parts; the first was about the socio-demographic and scientific data of the students; the second on the knowledge of road traffic regulations and the third dealt with attitudes and practice of driving and the use of seat belts. Results: Two hundred thirty eight out of 297 students (80%) responded to the questionnaire in this study. The mean age of the participants was 21 years, 47% lived in cities, 70% and 72% had cars and driving licenses respectively. More than half of the students had been involved in road traffic accidents (RTAs), 22% of these had been injured in these RTAs and 13% admitted to hospital for an average of nine days. High speed was the main cause of their RTAs. The mean speed at which the students drove their cars within and outside the city boundaries were 81 KM/h and 127 KM/h respectively. The degree of knowledge of road traffic regulation was moderate to high in more than 75% of the students, while more than 90% of them believed in the importance of the use of seat belts. More than 75% of the participants mentioned that they had problems with the use of seat belts, the most common of which were forgetfulness and anxiety. Conclusion: This study revealed that many students had been involved in RTAs as a result of driving at high speed. Most of the students had good attitudes towards the use of seat belts. The rate of compliance to the use of seat belts increased with the legislation on its use. Continuing health education and the monitoring of compliance to road traffic regulations is necessary if the incidence of RTAs is to be reduced.
  1,537 326 -
MEDICAL EDUCATION
Factors affecting the choice of health specialty by medical graduates
Saleh S Al-Ansari, Mohamed A Khafagy
September-December 2006, 13(3):119-123
PMID:23012131
A specialty is the transition from the undifferentiated medical graduate phase to the final, fully-differentiated specialist who is almost restricted to one specialized area of medical work. The medical specialty chosen by the medical practitioner is important for both the practitioner and the society. It is an important determinant of the future supply of doctors in different specialties and the planning of the workforce for the health-care services. Many factors influence specialty choices of the medical student and medical practitioner. These range from individual characteristics to the features of the specialty itself, including specialty-related lifestyle. This article explores factors influencing specialty choices of medical students and young practitioners. The article also suggests some general and practical principles that junior doctors should follow in selecting a specialty to suit their personality bearing in mind the health needs of the society.
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BRIEF REPORT
Breast cancer awareness campaign: Will it make a difference?
Maha S.A. AbdelHadi
September-December 2006, 13(3):115-118
PMID:23012130
Objective : The increased prevalence of breast cancer in recent years characterized by young age and delayed presentation has alerted women to randomly seek medical advice randomly. Breast cancer awareness programs are scarce and when available function on a very limited scale. In an attempt to increase cancer awareness among women, school teachers were targeted as missionaries to the community. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the breast cancer awareness campaign mounted by the author. Material and Methods : This survey was undertaken in 2005 with school teachers in Al Khobar district, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia as the target. A breast cancer campaign was designed with lectures and workshops and delivered to school teachers in seven separate sessions. Each session was attended by 100-150 female teachers selected by their administration. Pre and post workshop questionnaires were distributed to assess knowledge of cancer symptoms, risk factors, attitudes towards breast self-examination (BSE), mammography, and common misconceptions. Results: The majority demonstrated minimal basic background knowledge on breast cancer, methods of conducting BSE or the need for mammography. The pre workshop questionnaires showed that 5% agreed and performed BSE, 14% thought that mammography may be needed, while 81% did not think any of these modalities were necessary. Post workshop questionnaire demonstrated positive results, 45% agreed to perform BSE, 45% agreed to the need of mammographic screening while 10% still did not see the necessity of these procedures and refused the knowledge or the search for asymptomatic lesions. Conclusion : In order to succeed, breast cancer programs should be structured and implemented on a wide scale preferably tailored to fit individual communities. School teachers as educators help to convey the message to a large sector of the population by enhancing the knowledge of the younger generation on the necessity and the importance of early detection of cancer.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of age, obesity and parity on blood pressure and hypertension in non-pregnant married women
Mohammed E.M. Khalid
September-December 2006, 13(3):103-107
PMID:23012128
Objective : To assess the effect of age, body mass index (BMI) and parity on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs) and hypertension. Subjects and Methods : A cross-sectional prospective study of 441 non-pregnant married women ranging in age from 15-60 years. For each woman selected, a detailed questionnaire dealing with sociodemographic profile including reproductive data was completed. Systolic and 5 th phase diastolic BPs were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Body weight and height were measured using an Avery Beam weighing scale and a stadiometer respectively. Results : In this study sample, the overall prevalence of hypertension was 4.3%. Statistical analysis showed that age and BMI were positively and significantly associated with BPs (p<0.0001 for systolic BP & <0.002 for diastolic BP and p<0.0001 for systolic BP & <0.005 for diastolic BP respectively) and positively and significantly (p<0.0001 & <0.003 respectively) associated with an increase in the risk of hypertension (Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.53 (1.1-1.2) and 1.11 (1.04-1.19) respectively) while parity was negatively and insignificantly associated with BPs (p<0.4 and <0.1 for systolic and diastolic BPs respectively) and negatively and insignificantly (P<0.1) associated with an increase in the risk of hypertension (Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 0.87 (0.74-1.03). Conclusion : Age and BMI were significant contributors to BPs and hypertension rather than parity. The negative association between parity and hypertension, although insignificant, implies that nulliparity rather than multiparity imposed an important effect on hypertension.
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EDITORIAL
New players for the new era: working together for the promotion of health
Mohamed Al Khateeb
September-December 2006, 13(3):95-95
PMID:23012126
  780 144 -
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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010