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   1998| January-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 31, 2012

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The validation of the general health questionnaire (ghq-28) in a primary care setting in Saudi Arabia
Abdulrazzak Alhamad, Eiad A Al-Faris
January-June 1998, 5(1):13-19
Objective: The objective of this study was to validate an Arabic version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in a primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A total of 60 Saudi patients selected by means of systematic random sampling were asked to fill out the GHQ-28 Arabic version. The psychiatrist interviewed all patients using the Arabic version of the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS). Results: The best cut-off level for the GHQ-28 indicating best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity was 4/5, where the validity values were, sensitivity; 72%, specificity; 74%, positive predictive value; 72%, negative predictive value; 74% and misclassification rate; 27%. The correlation coefficient was r = +0.61 and the Spearman's Rank-difference correlation was rs = +0.57. The area under the ROC Curve was 69%. The cut-off point 4/5 in this study is the same as recommended by others in primary care settings. Although the validity parameters are relatively low, they are within the range found by other studies in USA, UK and developing countries. This supports the suggestion to develop an Arabic Screening Questionnaire based on the translated GHQ with the addition of culturally specific items. Conclusion:The GHQ-28 Arabic Version is a valid instrument that may be of great help to primary care doctors in improving detection of psychiatric morbidity and in epidemiological research.
  2,461 293 -
Breastfeeding practice in Dammam area of Saudi Arabia
Mohammad H Qadri, Ridah A Al-Harfi, Mohammad A Al-Gamdi
January-June 1998, 5(1):59-64
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the breastfeeding status for children under 24 months and assess the causes of breastfeeding failure among those mothers who do not breastfeed their babies. Methodology: This study was conducted on a sampled population of 1185 children under 24 months of age, using breastfeeding indicators recommended by World Health Organization, for assessing breastfeeding practices within a recall period of 24 hours, in the Dammam area of Saudi Arabia. Results: The exclusive breastfeeding rate and predominantly breastfeeding rates were 33% and 11.5%, respectively, under 4 months of age among these children. The timely complementary feeding rate was 31.7% only. All the values were far behind those recommended. The reasons given in order of their frequencies by the mothers for failure to breastfeed were insufficient milk, advice and example of other mothers and formula milk advertisement. Conclusion: This study recognizes the low level of exclusive breastfeeding among children under 4 months of age and lays emphasis on changing the behavior of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding. This can be achieved by special integrated community-based approaches among potential mothers by supporting them after delivery and proper follow-up, to prevent failure of milk formation and discontinuation of breastfeeding.
  1,844 188 -
Cigarette smoking behavior among South African Indian high school students
Mahomed Bayat, Basil J Pillay, Mohammed H Cassimjee
January-June 1998, 5(1):51-57
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) in a sample of Indian matriculation students . Methodology: All (N=325) Indian matriculation students, at high schools, in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, were included in the study. A questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSB. Results and conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of 16.9%. Most smokers (98.2%) had commenced the practice after the age of 10 years. The most common reason given for CSB was experimentation (83.6%). Main influence was family members followed by teachers and advertisements. The association between smoking and lung cancer was well-known by smokers (90.7%). There was very little awareness of anti-smoking programmes or organizations. Alarmingly, there was little formal health education on the dangers of smoking in schools. The implications of these results are discussed and recommendations on decreasing CSB are made.
  1,686 174 -
A study of Riyadh hospitals non-urgent surgery waiting lists: From the physicians' perspective
Badran A Al-Omar
January-June 1998, 5(1):31-36
Objective: To examine and compare the factors causing long waiting lists for non-urgent surgery in public (Ministry of Health, military, and teaching) and private hospitals in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine the relationship between the personal characteristics of the respondents (surgeons) and the surgery-delay experience. Material and Methods: The instrument used in this study was a self-administered questionnaire. Out of 500 distributed questionnaires 320 valid responses were returned. Data were collected from 14 public and private hospitals in Riyadh City. Frequencies and percentages; Mann-Whitney; Kruskall-Wallis one way ANOVA; Chi-square; Phi; and Cramers' V tests were used in the statistical analysis.. Results: Results show that seven factors were significantly important in causing long waiting lists. A significant difference with regard to the seriousness of this problem was found between the two types of hospitals. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a significant difference in the seriousness of the problem between private and various types of public hospitals. Similar studies in different parts of the country are therefore recommended.
  1,657 176 -
Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in non-neutropenic cancer patients
Ezzeldin M Ibrahim, Fatma A Al-Mulhim, Fahd A Al-Muhanna, Ali Al-Amri
January-June 1998, 5(1):37-43
Objective: The study was designed to assess prospectively the efficacy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the management of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in non-neutropenic cancer patients. Material and Methods: In a prospective open study, adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced, neutropenia-independent oral mucositis were treated with GM-CSF (Schering Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ) prepared as mouthwash solution (5 to 10 μgm /ml). GM-CSF was administered within 24 hours of occurrence of oral mucositis at a frequency of 4 to 6 times daily. Systemic GM-CSF was not permissible. Oral mucositis was graded according to the modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: Forty-nine patients were recruited but nine were subsequently excluded as they experienced neutropenia during GM-CSF therapy. The remaining 40 patients were all evaluable. Most patients had either Grade 3 or 4 gross (71%) or functional (70%) mucositis. The mean ± SEM gross oral mucositis scores for all 40 patients combined decreased from 3.3 ± 0.11 at baseline to 2.1 ± 0.12 (p<0.0001) after 2 days, 0.95 ± 0.11 (p<0.0001) after 5 days and 0.23 ± 0.07 (p <0.0001) after 10 days of therapy. Likewise, the mean ± SEM functional oral mucositis scores decreased from 3.03 ± 0.13 at baseline to 1.58 ± 0.13 (p<0.0001) after 2 days, 0.68 ± 0.11 (p<0.0001) after 5 days, and 0.15 ± 0.06 (p<0.0001) after 10 days of therapy. The duration of severe oral mucositis was also shortened as Grade 0 or 1 (gross mucositis grading score) was evident in 12 (30%), 29 (73%), and 40 (100%) patients by the 2 nd , 5 th and 10 th day of therapy, respectively. Similarly, Grade 0 or 1 (functional mucositis grading score) reported in 19 (48%), 31 (78%), and 40 (100%) patients by the 2 nd , 5 th and 10 th day of therapy, respectively. The use of GM-CSF mouthwash was not associated with any apparent ill effect. Conclusion: GM-CSF mouthwash as used in this study has a significant recuperative efficacy on the severity, morbidity, and duration of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. A large randomized, placebo-controlled study is warranted to ascertain that benefit and determine the optimal dosage and schedule.
  1,639 171 -
Promotion of mental health as a function of different service agencies
Buthaina M Ghazali, Huda M Al-Wabel, Nadia F Farghaly, Maisa A Samy
January-June 1998, 5(1):21-29
Introduction: There is a reliable evidence that personnel working in a variety of settings beyond mainstream mental health services can make an important contribution to the prevention of mental health problems. Aim: To assess the ability of personnel in different sectors including schools, school health unit and Primary Health Care (PHC) centers to recognize the risks and signs of deteriorating mental health among vulnerable people. The roles played by these personnel in the area of mental health were also defined. Methods: A descriptive approach was used to carry out this study in different service agencies located in Abha region. These included female secondary schools, female school health units and all PHC centers. Questionnaires were mailed to teachers, physicians and nurses. The questionnaires contained queries about warning signs of poor mental health and high-risk groups for mental disorders. Results: It was shown that 50% of school teachers in the sample were good at picking up signs of mental distress while others felt that they did not have the skills in this field nor was it their role to do so. The majority of physicians and nurses (66.03%) in school health unit and PHC centers identify family problems as predictor of mental disorders. From the stand point of the primary care provided by health centers, early diagnosis of cases and provision of treatment were considered unimportant compared to the role of case referral as stated by 15.38% and 53.84% of workers, respectively. Recommendations: It is recommended that the role of these services be expanded to develop skills in dealing with common mental problems.
  1,502 171 -
Hyperlipidemia and obesity among diabetics at Jubail miiltary hospital
Khalid S Al-Ghamdi, Rumana Rehman
January-June 1998, 5(1):45-50
Objective: Evaluate the pattern of dyslipidemia and obesity among diabetics, attending the Primary Care Clinic. Subjects and Methods: All diabetics (282) registered in the Primary Care Clinic of the Armed Forces Hospital at King Abdulaziz Naval Base, Jubail, Eastern Saudi Arabia, were interviewed by primary care doctors.Weight and height were recorded; fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured after 12-hour fasting. Results: The study revealed that among 89.7% type 2 and 10.3% type 1 diabetes mellitus, 22.7% had a normal Body Mass Index (BMI) 40.8% were overweight, and 36.5%, obese. Females had a significantly higher BMI than males (P<0.001). Total cholesterol was more than normal in 26%, LDL in 27% and Triglycerides in 11% but HDL lower than normal in 38%. However, mixed hyperlipidemia was seen in 5% of the study population. Conclusion: Obesity and dyslipidemia were high among diabetic patients and special attention is required in prevention and treatment.
  1,475 186 -
A textbook of general practice
Mohammad Z Al-Shahri
January-June 1998, 5(1):65-65
  1,002 134 -


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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010