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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-26

Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in a rural community of Odisha, India


Department of Microbiology, Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur University, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Muktikesh Dash
Department of Microbiology, Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, Odisha - 760 004
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8229.108180

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. Empiric treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is determined by antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in a population of specific geographical location. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CA-UTI in rural Odisha, India, and the effect of gender and age on its prevalence as well as etiologic agents and the resistance profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 1670 adult patients. The urine samples were processed and microbial isolates were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of UTI was significantly higher in females compared with males (females 45.2%, males 18.4%, OR = 2.041, 95% CI = 1.64-2.52, P ≤ 0.0001). Young females within the age group of 18-37 years and elderly males (≥68 years) showed high prevalence of UTI. Escherichia coli (68.8%) was the most prevalent isolate followed by Enterococcus spp. (9.7%). Amikacin and nitrofurantoin were the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 5.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study revealed E. coli as the pre-dominant bacterial pathogen. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for uncomplicated CA-UTIs. In the Indian setting, routine urine cultures may be advisable, since treatment failure is likely to occur with commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is necessary for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines.


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Journal of Family and Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 05th September, 2010